Cymbidium: home care, transplantation and reproduction, species
The evergreen epiphyte cymbidium (Cymbidium) is part of the Orchidaceae family. Such plants can be found in the subtropics of Northern Australia and Asia, and some species are found at an altitude of up to 2 thousand meters above sea level.
Cultivate such an epiphyte began more than two thousand years ago in China. Confucius considered the cymbidiums the kings of aromas. To date, in Japan and China, the natural species of this plant are cultivated very widely, among them there are foliage forms and the flowers of which are painted in various color shades. Small species are most popular with gardeners because their flowers have the strongest aroma of all cymbidiums. Large-flowered hybrids are highly regarded in Australia and Europe as cut crops. And in total today more than 100 species of such a plant are cultivated. Peter Olof Swartz, was a Swedish botanist, and it was he who first described the cymbidium in 1799.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. As a rule, in the winter for 4-6 weeks.
- Illumination. This plant needs a long daylight, while the light should be diffused, but bright. In winter, the bush needs artificial lighting.
- Temperature mode. In the warm season, the temperature should be room temperature, and shortly before the start and during flowering, no more than 16 degrees.
- Watering. During the growing season, often watered with plenty of water, and before flowering - 2 times a month.
- Air humidity. It should be at the level of 50-60 percent. To increase humidity in the summer, it is recommended to moisten the foliage from the spray gun three times a day, and put the pot with the plant on a pallet filled with wet pebbles.
- Fertilizer. After every third watering, the bush is regularly fed with a fertilizer solution for orchids.
- Rest period. Not pronounced.
- Transfer. Regularly 1 time in 2 or 3 years.
- Breeding. By dividing the bush.
- Pests. Scabies, spider mites and aphids.
- Diseases. Sooty fungus, gray and brown rot, and also a viral mosaic.
Features of cymbidium
The cymbidium orchid has ovoid pseudobulbs, which are a thickening of the lower part of the stem, in which the plant stores water. Keeled and leathery to the touch sheet plates can be linear or xiphoid in shape, pointed or blunt. The flower stalk height can reach up to 150 cm. Loose drooping racemose inflorescence can be multi- or low-flowered. The size of the flowers depends on the species and variety, they are both large and small. They are painted in a variety of colors: yellow, pink, cream, greenish yellow, brown, red and in their various shades. As a rule, sepals and petals are painted in the same color and have the same shape: lanceolate or sickle-shaped. The three-lobed sessile lip often has a rich motley color. The duration of flowering is from 6 to 12 weeks. When grown indoors, the bush can live 3–7 years. Most cymbidium species are represented by epiphytes, which means that they need special care.
Cymbidium Orchid 🌱 Garden Zoo
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Cymbidium orchid care at home
If possible, cymbidium is recommended to be placed on the windowsill of a large window, where there is a lot of light. Do not forget to shade it from the midday sun, especially during the flowering period, for this you can use a light curtain. This plant is distinguished by its photophilousness. As a rule, such an orchid blooms in winter, so at this time it will need compulsory illumination, which will help prolong daylight hours.
An orchid feels better in coolness, but stuffiness and heat can harm it.The same applies to the winter months, if the bush is located near heating appliances, then this will have a very negative effect on its flowering.
The flower needs high humidity - from 50 to 60 percent. In connection with this summer, the bush will need to be moistened from the sprayer at least 3 times a day. In order to increase the air humidity, a pot with a bush can be put on a deep tray filled with wet expanded clay or pebbles.
During the growing season, watering should be frequent and plentiful, but be careful not to stagnate the moisture in the root system, as this can cause rot on the roots or the formation of black spots on the surface of the leaf plates. With a lack of moisture, wrinkling of pseudobulbs is observed, and sometimes flying around buds, as well as flowers.
In late autumn, the number and abundance of irrigation is reduced. If the room is cool, then the bush is watered twice a month, and if it is warm, then the frequency of watering is increased.
The plant is fed regularly with every third watering. At the same time, it is necessary to add a nutrient solution to the substrate only after the bush is watered. For top dressing, experts advise using special fertilizer for orchids, for example: Ideal, Kemira Suite or Rainbow. Remember that fertilizer must be taken to feed orchids in half the dose recommended by the manufacturer. In the middle of the summer period, the amount of potassium in fertilizers should be increased, and nitrogen should be reduced. During flowering, the bush is not fed.
Cymbidium is transplanted only if necessary, when its root system becomes very crowded in capacity. On average, transplants are performed once every 2 or 3 years. A faded bush should be replanted when the height of its young growths will be at least 50 mm.
Before proceeding with the transplant, a suitable substrate is first prepared. If desired, you can buy ready-made soil mixture for orchids in a specialized store. However, it can be done with your own hands, for this the pine bark is taken as a basis, crushed sphagnum, a small amount of charcoal and horse-ripened manure are poured into it, as well as fern roots are added, mix all the components thoroughly. At the bottom of the pot, pour a thick layer of drainage from clay shards or expanded clay, it is covered with a two-three-centimeter layer of prepared substrate. After that, an orchid taken together with a lump of earth is placed in a new pot. Then fill all the voids with a fresh substrate so that the pseudobulb is on the surface of the soil mixture. If replanting a bush, you had to remove the rotten parts of the roots, then water it only a couple of days after the procedure is completed. If the roots of the orchid were healthy, then it is watered immediately upon completion of the transplant. The transplanted bush is put in a shaded place, where it will stay until it recovers from stress.
ORCHID TRANSFUSION AFTER FLOWERING // clean the roots of the orchid TsIMBIDIUM
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What to do if cymbidium does not bloom?
The time and duration of flowering of different varieties and species differ from each other. However, any of these varieties of cymbidium will not bloom or it will be bad to tie buds if the room is warmer than 22 degrees. This is due to the fact that in order to create modern hybrids, species from mountainous areas are mainly used, therefore, creating conditions for growth and flowering, it should be taken into account. Try to ensure that the conditions in the room where the flower is located are close to natural: it will need a lot of bright light and the difference between the night and daytime temperatures of 4–5 degrees.Species and varieties blooming in spring or summer when grown in the garden or on the balcony are subject to completely natural diurnal temperature differences, and therefore they will delight the grower with their lush flowering, without causing unnecessary trouble. Remember that such a flower is not afraid of night cooling to 5 degrees. And if the bush blooms in the winter, then the grower will have to do something, because there will be no natural difference in daily temperatures due to working heating devices. For example, if you have a warmed balcony or a loggia, then the bush can be moved there overnight. The plant blooms most magnificent in the third year of growth, while the largest flowers are formed in it.
Cymbidium. Secret of flowering 😆😆😆
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This orchid can be propagated only by dividing the bush. Perform this procedure simultaneously with the transplant. After the bush is removed from the container, you will see a tangled ball consisting of roots, and the lower part of them is gray and dried. Take a well-sterilized, very sharp instrument and trim the bottom of this tangle, consisting of dried roots. Then carefully divide the bush into parts, and each of the delenos should have several roots and at least one juicy pseudobulb. Sprinkle the places of cuts with charcoal powder, and then the delenki are planted in individual pots using a suitable substrate (see above). Until the bush begins to grow, it needs high humidity, which is ensured by regular watering and spraying. You can understand that the delenki are rooted, by the appearance of new shoots and leaf plates.
Cymbidium does not bloom
Sometimes it happens that the cymbidium is lush with dense green foliage, but it is not going to bloom. In this case, he will need a good shake, for this they reduce the abundance and frequency of watering, and also organize a difference in daily temperatures of 4-5 degrees. To make such an orchid blossom, the air temperature at night should be between 10 and 13 degrees.
The foliage will dry
If you notice that the tips of the leaf blades dry, then this is due to the fact that the room has too dry air. In this case, increase the frequency of humidification of the bush from the spray gun (at least 3 times a day), and place the container with the plant on a deep tray filled with wet pebbles. However, in some cases, the tops of leaf plates dry out due to excessively heavy or frequent watering, remember that the surface of the soil mixture between waterings should dry well.
Cymbidium turns yellow
In some cases, the cymbidium begins to turn yellow due to the fact that rot appears on its roots. Be sure to inspect the root system by first removing the top layer of the substrate. If rot is detected, then you need to transplant the bush into a fresh substrate as soon as possible, while be sure to remove all the rotted areas from it. If the roots rotted very much, then the orchid can no longer be saved. After the transplant, try to understand why rot on the roots appeared, since if the cause is not eliminated, then problems with the plant may occur again.
Pests and diseases
Aphids, spider mites and scale insects can live on cymbidium, and it can become sick with mosaics, gray and brown rot, and also with sooty fungus. If you defeat the mosaic, the bush will have to be burned, since this viral disease is incurable today. And in case of rot damage, it is necessary to cut out all the diseased parts of the flower, they also reduce watering, and the bush is transferred to a room with a higher air temperature.
Cymbidium - errors in care
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Types and varieties of cymbidium with photos and names
Below will be described those types and varieties of cymbidium, which are most popular among gardeners.
Or "ivory".In this species, flowers of spectacular cream color consist of large petals. They have the same smell as lilacs. The bush blooms in spring, and it grows best at moderate temperatures.
Cymbidium aloe (Cymbidium aloifolium)
The height of such a miniature plant is about 0.3 meters. Spectacular yellowish flowers with a cream and burgundy tint across reach 45 mm.
Cymbidium lanceolate (Cymbidium lancifolium)
In diameter, the flowers reach about 50 mm, their petals and sepals are greenish with a median vein of dark red color. On the greenish-white lip, spots and red spots are found on the middle lobe, and brownish-red stripes are located on the lateral lobes. Flowering is observed in April – October.
Cymbidium Daya (Cymbidium dayanum)
The composition of the multiflowered inflorescence includes flowers, in diameter reaching up to 50 mm. Ivory petals and sepals have a median vein of dark red color. The front lobe of the white lip is strongly curled; the callus is white or cream. The birthplace of such a plant is Sumatra and the Philippines. Flowering is observed in August – December. The most popular varieties are “Tavoy” and “Tvelv”.
Cymbidium Tracyan (Cymbidium tracyanum)
This multi-flowered species is distinguished by very large and fragrant flowers, which in diameter reach up to 15 cm, they are painted in greenish-yellow color, and they are decorated with brownish-red dotted lines along the veins. Wavy (maybe fringed) along the edge of the cream-colored lip with specks and stripes of red along the front lobe. The length of the racemose inflorescence is about 1.2 m, and it includes about 20 flowers. Flowering is observed in September – January.
Cymbidium low (Cymbidium lowianum)
In this epiphytic plant, the diameter of the flowers is approximately 20 cm; they are part of a multicolor inflorescence. The color of the petals and sepals is yellow-green; the dark crimson three-lobed lip has a yellow border on the edge of the central lobe. The height of the bush can reach almost 1 m. The length of linear leaf plates is about 0.75 mm. This species comes from Burma. Flowering is observed from February to June. Among the floriculturists, the Liliput variety is most popular.
Cymbidium mosquito (Cymbidium ensifolium)
Such a terrestrial orchid in nature is found in rocky terrain. The veins of the yellowish petals are burgundy, and they have at the base of the same shade of specks. In a yellowish or light green lip, the lateral lobes are decorated with brown lines, and the middle one has a dark red hue. An upright peduncle, whose height is 15–65 centimeters, carries an inflorescence, consisting of 3–9 very fragrant flowers, reaching 30–50 mm across. Flowering is observed in January – April. Florists cultivate hybrids c. Mosquito Golden Elf, Peter Pan, Lovely Malody.
The wonderful cymbidium (Cymbidium insigne)
Spectacular flowers of this epiphytic plant consist of pinkish or white petals, decorated with specks of red. There are purple spots on all the lobes of the lips; at the anterior lobe, the wavy edge is bent backward. A loose vertical inflorescence approximately 0.8 m long contains from 9 to 15 flowers, reaching 70–80 mm across. The native view is from China, Thailand and Vietnam. Flowering is observed from February to May.
Dwarf cymbidium (Cymbidium pumilum)
As a rule, flowers consist of brownish-red petals with a pale yellow border on the edge. Dark red spots adorn the white lip, the middle lobe is curved and blunt. The length of an almost upright inflorescence is about 12 centimeters, while the average diameter of the flowers is about 10 centimeters. This very rare species comes from China and Japan. Flowering is observed in December – March.
Giant cymbidium (Cymbidium giganteum)
The composition of the inflorescence includes about 15 very fragrant flowers in diameter reaching from 10 to 12 centimeters. Their petals are greenish-yellow, decorated with red lines.On the surface of the cream lip there are also stripes and spots. An inflorescence hangs from a powerful peduncle, reaching a length of about 0.6 m. A native view from the Himalayas. Flowering is observed in November – April, with each flower withering only 20-30 days after opening. The Red Chili variety is popular: a compact bush is decorated with flowers of rich red color.
Cymbidium Save the roots!
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