Orchid oncidium: home care, the key to flowering - proper watering
The most popular among gardeners is orchid oncidium (Oncidium). This genus is represented by various plants that differ both externally and in terms of growth. So, there are species that prefer to grow in arid savannahs, others grow in the warm and humid forests of South and Central America, and there are also those that are found only high in the mountains. In this regard, there are no certain specific rules for caring for this plant, as well as their hybrids. In each particular case, it is necessary to take into account which parent species a particular hybrid originated from. The most important thing in caring for such orchids is the choice of the correct temperature regime, their drought tolerance and the characteristics of the dormant period.
Oncidium differs from phalaenopsis in that it is more attached to temperature changes during the day, and also loves light. A greater number of species of this plant are epiphytes and they are able to live even on stone. In this regard, they do not tolerate excessive moisture of the root system.
It is worth considering that oncidiums of Dutch origin are for the most part very beautiful and do not require special conditions for the maintenance of hybrids. They are easy enough to grow at home and at the same time they bloom quite effectively. You should also learn more about cumbria - such a name for hybrid orchids is commonly traded. These hybrids are obtained by crossing a wide variety of oncidium species, as well as oncidiums. Such hybrids are also quite unpretentious.
Oncidium hybrid in a flower shop is quite simple to distinguish. He has a branched and fairly long peduncle, on which there are a large number of small ones, similar to dancing dolls or moths, flowers. As a rule, they are painted brownish yellow or red. The flower has several pseudobulbs that are thickened. And from them narrow long leaves depart, which are folded in the shape of a boat. Most often on sale there are such hybrids as:
- Sweet sugar (Onc. Aloha Iwanaga x Onc. Varicosum) - it is the most popular and is characterized by its unpretentiousness, has many yellow small flowers;
- Twinkle (Onc. Cheirophorum x Onc. Ornithorhynchum) are hybrids of compact size, they have fragrant small (up to 15 millimeters) flowers, which, depending on the variety, can be painted in yellow, white or red.
- Sharry baby (Onc. Jamie Suttonx Onc. Honolulu) - in this series there are many small flowers that have a fairly strong smell of chocolate and honey, and depending on the variety may have a red, dark purple or brownish-yellow color.
In the store, you should opt for a plant that has at least 3 mature pseudobulbs. Only in this case, the purchased flower will grow and develop normally. If the oncidium has less than 3 pseudobulbs, then flowering to such a plant in the store is artificially stimulated, and when grown indoors, it often causes serious problems. If the pseudobulbs are slightly wrinkled, then this is quite normal. When buying, you must also pay attention to the root system. The roots should be light in color. The soil should be slightly moist (not dry and not flooded). The root system negatively reacts to stagnation of water in the soil, as well as to overdrying, which lasts a long time. If there are brownish spots on the foliage, then it is better not to buy such plants.
Care for orchid oncidium at home
To transplant a plant you just bought, it is recommended only as a last resort, for example, if the root system has rotted (it is better not to buy such a flower at all). Such an orchid reacts extremely negatively to transplants, so this procedure should be carried out as soon as possible once every several years, for example, if the substrate has become more like dust or if the overgrown flower has become crowded in a pot.
A transparent container should not be used for planting, since there is no chlorophyll in the root system and therefore does not need sunlight.It is best to opt for a low and wide enough pot. In the event that the container is a standard size, then ½ part of it should be filled with drainage. Then the pot is filled with powders, the bark of coniferous trees is used as it, and a smaller fraction will be needed than for phalaenopsis. Experienced growers also recommend pouring a small amount of pieces of charcoal, as well as sphagnum moss.
During the transplant, it should be remembered that the oncidium is a sympoidal plant. Unlike phalaenopsis, which is monopoidal and has only 1 growth point, it has several growth points that share a common rhizome. The growth of young shoots is directed only in one direction. In this regard, it is planted closer to one of the sides of the pot, turning the old pseudobulbs to the wall. This frees up space for young shoots. If there are young shoots during transplantation, they should be turned to the center of the bowl.
In no case should you deepen the base of the flower. So, pseudobulbs should not be immersed in the soil and they need good ventilation. During planting, only the root system should be buried in the soil. It should be noted that the container should be filled with soil almost to the top, otherwise the orchid will have poor ventilation. The old pseudobulbs should not be cut off, because, despite their age, they still nourish the flower. It is also necessary to cautiously take the bases of the pseudobulbs, since when removing the scales on their surface, young shoots and flower buds are often damaged.
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This plant is very photophilous and normally tolerates direct rays of the sun. However, it is recommended to shade it from the summer scorching sun. The light level can be adjusted by paying attention to the color of the foliage. So, if it is dark green, then the lighting is too scarce. And if the leaves are light green and on their surface there are small reddish burn points, then the lighting is too intense. If the light level is optimally selected, then the foliage will be a normal green color.
This plant, if necessary, can be placed on a window of northern orientation, but flowering from it in this case should not be expected. Oncidium especially needs intensive lighting during the formation of young pseudobulbs, as well as during the laying of flower buds. In the event that these processes are observed in the winter, it is recommended to provide illumination with phytolamps.
Hybrid plants normally grow and develop at a temperature of 14–26 degrees. If the room is too hot, the plant will stop growing. A not too large difference in daily temperatures (about 3 or 4 degrees) is recommended.
The flower normally tolerates not too high humidity in the apartment. Recommended air humidity is approximately 40 percent. You need to moisten the foliage from the sprayer on hot summer days, and also occasionally during the heating season. With a cool wintering (less than 18 degrees), oncidium does not moisturize. Despite the time of year, the flower needs excellent ventilation. The fact is that in stagnant air with high humidity fungal diseases can develop.
How to water. Bloom
How blooming will be depends on how well you water the flower. In order for the flowering to be stable, it is necessary to follow the watering regime, which should correspond to the stages of flower development. From the beginning of growth (when a young sprout emerges from the bottom of the pseudobulb) and before the pseudobulb begins to form (the sprout will thicken below), watering should be systematic and plentiful. Experts advise watering the plant by immersing the flower pot in lukewarm, well-maintained water.Watering is necessary only after the substrate dries well, but at the same time the “dry period” should not be too long. About how dry the soil can be judged by the weight of the container with a flower. You should not water the oncidium strictly on schedule, because on hot summer days the soil may well dry out after 3 days, and it will take about a crescent for rainy autumn.
Immediately after you notice that a new pseudobulb is forming, watering the flower must be stopped, otherwise flowering will not occur. After 3-4 weeks, a peduncle will appear, which grows from the bottom of the new pseudobulb. If you are sure that this is the peduncle, you can start to water the orchid again. After flowering is over and before the start of the growth of a new pseudobulb, watering should be less plentiful. In the event that a young vegetative shoot grows, and not a peduncle, this means that problems arose with the plant. This may be due to disturbances during the dormant period and, as a consequence, improper plant development. This often happens when a flower has less than 3 pseudobulbs and it simply does not have the strength to form a peduncle.
If the plant develops within the normal range, then it blooms with a frequency of 1 time in 8-12 months. If there is a large number of pseudobulbs, then oncidium can bloom more often.
Wrinkled pseudobulbs can often be observed. This may not in all cases be associated with diseases or with poor watering. They can wrinkle when a young shoot just starts to grow. Such sprouts lack their own root system, and therefore the maternal pseudobulb feeds it, as a result of which wrinkling occurs. If you increase watering, this will only provoke rotting of the root system, but a pseudobulb will not help. Also, a pseudobulb can dry during dormancy, and also during flowering.
They feed the plant only when young shoots begin to grow. After the formation of pseudobulbs begins, the application of fertilizers to the soil stops. You need to resume feeding only after the peduncle begins to grow and finish after the opening of the 1st flower. Then top dressing begins only after the start of growth of a young shoot. The root system reacts negatively to soil salinization. In this regard, the concentration of fertilizers must be reduced. And also sometimes you need to fertilize the foliage, for this you need to moisten it with a weak solution of fertilizer from the sprayer. In this case, the concentration of fertilizer is recommended to be reduced by 10 times from the dosage recommended on the package.
In indoor conditions, such an orchid can only be propagated vegetatively by dividing the curtain. You can only divide a plant that has at least 6 pseudobulbs. At the same time, each delenka should have at least 3 shoots (only such delenki are viable). An underground shoot is cut with a very sharp knife, and then the resulting cut is processed with chopped charcoal. Before starting the division, it is necessary to allow the soil to dry completely, and after this procedure, watering is not carried out for another 1-1.5 weeks. During this time, the wound should dry.
Pests and diseases
The purchased oncidium must be quarantined for 4 weeks, it must be monitored.
A mealybug is often wound up. If on the surface of the foliage you notice whitish lumps very similar to cotton wool, then treatment should be carried out. To do this, moisten a cotton pad in alcohol and carefully remove insects. After that, carry out the processing by Actar.
A scale shield may also settle. Plaques similar to wax droplets appear on the surface of foliage and shoots. Thrips and aphids can also settle.In this case, aphids can be seen with the naked eye, and thrips is quite difficult to detect, and infection can be judged by the appearance of silver stripes on the surface of the foliage, as well as by the little black points that are the excrement of insects.
In the presence of a spider mite, whitish dots form, and a spider web appears. And often a flat tick settles, the leaves in this case change color to whitish-silver. An onion tick can hit the root system and the base of the shoots of weakened specimens. Any kind of tick is fought in the same way as with a spider mite.
It can become infected with fungal and bacterial rot. If brownish spots appear on the foliage, then the affected areas must be removed. Such a plant needs very good ventilation, between the irrigations the soil should dry out almost completely. And also such a flower needs to be placed in a warmer place, and you should not shower or spray the leaves. Treat with systemic fungicides (foundationazole, follow the instructions), as well as a broad-spectrum antibiotic (Tetracycline, dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 2). The plant is sprayed with the resulting solution and watered the soil with it. A fully recovered flower should not have new spots for a long time, while old ones should not increase.
Orchid Oncidium_ Care features
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