Evening party: seed cultivation, planting and care, varieties
The perennial or biennial herbaceous plant Vespers (Hesperis), also called night violet, or hesperis, is a representative of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family. This genus unites more than 50 species, in nature they can be found in Central Asia, Central Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. The scientific name of such a plant comes from the Greek word translating as “evening”, the fact is that after sunset the smell of the flowers of the evening party becomes stronger. The most popular view among gardeners is the evening party matrona: this perennial plant in open soil is cultivated as a biennial.
Features of the party
The evening party has upright branched shoots, the height of which can vary from 0.5 to 1.2 m. Regularly located whole sessile or petiolate leaf plates have a green color and a lyre or lanceolate shape, the edge is serrated. On the surface of shoots and foliage there is pubescence. Loose racemose inflorescences consist of fragrant small flowers that are double or simple, they are painted in pink, lilac, white or purple. The fruit is a cylindrical pod, linear or tetrahedral with barely distinguishable ribs. During the first season, the plant forms a dense rosette, consisting of basal leaf plates, and the formation of the stem and inflorescences occurs next year.
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Cultivation of the evening party from seeds
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Vespers are usually grown through seedlings. Sowing seeds produced in the first days of April. First, in not too high containers, pour a pre-sanitized seedling mixture, evenly distribute the seeds on its surface and pour them on top with a centimeter layer of peat connected to humus. Tamp the surface of the crops a little, moisten them from the sprayer with well-settled water at room temperature. The container on top is covered with glass or film. Before seedlings appear, as a rule, this happens after 17–20 days, crops should be warm (about 20 degrees). During mass seed germination, the film is removed from the container.
Watering the seedlings is necessary so that the substrate in the container is constantly slightly moist, it is also necessary to regularly loosen its surface. During the formation of the first true leaf plates at the bushes, they begin to harden, for this every day for half a month the seedlings are taken outside (the duration of the procedure should be increased gradually). When the bushes are tempered, they can be planted in open ground.
For planting such flowers, it is recommended to choose a sunny area, but a shaded place is just as perfect for this, in any case, the evening party will bloom and grow equally well. Soil suitable moderately moist and loose is better if it is slightly alkaline or neutral. Before embarkation, the site must be prepared. To do this, dig it, while if the soil is poor, then mineral fertilizers and organic matter are introduced into it. During planting, keep a distance of between 0.35 and 0.45 m between the bushes. The planting hole should be so deep that the root system of the plant, taken together with a lump of earth, can fit in it. Planted seedlings need good watering.
If there is no desire to mess with seedlings, then the seeds of night violets can be sown directly in open soil. In this case, one should not hurry with sowing, because the plants grown during the season will bloom only next year. Sowing is recommended to be carried out in the last days of June or the first - in July, after the soil warms up very well. Sown seeds are not very dense and to a shallow depth.Do not forget to dig the site before and add all the necessary fertilizers to it.
The first seedlings can be seen after about 20 days. When the season comes to an end, rosettes should form in the bushes by this time, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place, and do not forget to leave a distance of 0.35 to 0.45 m between the flowers. If desired, the transplant can be delayed until the next spring period. If you transplant the night violet correctly, then it will quickly take root in a new place. When flowering bushes are transplanted, they are taken along with a large earthen lump, which must be moist.
Caring for an evening party in the garden
To cultivate an evening party in open soil is quite simple, like most other garden crops. Watering should be carried out regularly, while after it and after rain it is sometimes necessary to loosen the surface of the soil. After the appearance of weed grass, it must be removed immediately, and the bushes are systematically fed. In some cases, due to heavy inflorescences, the stems bend to the surface of the soil, which makes the bushes less attractive. In this case, you need to install supports, to which the shoots are tied.
Experts advise to cut off the inflorescences immediately after they wither. This culture needs shelter only if a very frosty and little snowy winter is expected. Cover plantings should be non-woven material (lutrasilom or spanbond). To shelter the site, you can also use spruce paws.
How to water and feed
Such flowers should be watered on average 1 time in 7 days, for this they use warm water heated in the sun. During a long dry and sultry period, the frequency of watering must be increased. At the same time, during prolonged rains, watering is stopped, since if the soil is excessively wet all the time, this significantly increases the likelihood that the bushes will be harmed by earthen fleas, since they like to settle on crops belonging to the Cabbage family. Watering and loosening the soil surface is necessary only in the morning.
During the first season, flowers are regularly fed with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer, which contains a large amount of nitrogen. In the second year, during the formation of the buds, the plant should be fed with liquid complex fertilizer for flowering plants or phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
Reproduction of the party
Species and varieties with simple flowers can be propagated by seed. But if terry night violets are cultivated, then they are propagated exclusively by dividing the bush, since if you collect seeds from the bushes yourself and sow them, then the grown plants will have simple flowers. Terry bushes are divided at the beginning of the spring period or in autumn. To do this, the bush is carefully removed from the ground, divided into several parts and the places of cuts are treated with crushed charcoal. Then the shares are planted in the pits, which are prepared in advance.
In late autumn, before the first frosts, the soil surface near the plants should be covered with a layer of mulch, which will protect the root system from snowy winters from severe frosts.
Pests and diseases of the party
Night violet is affected by the same diseases and harmful insects as the rest of the Cruciferous family. Such a flower can be damaged by cabbage aphids, cruciferous fleas and bugs, stalk cryptocephalus, cabbage moth, caterpillars of turnip and cabbage whites and cabbage scoops, rapeseed sawfly and cabbage fly larvae and cruciferous gall midges. Insecticides are used to destroy harmful insects; they can be bought at a specialized store. Experts advise trying to find a tool that effectively destroys pests, while not harming the environment.
In the seedling period, seedlings can become ill with a black leg. An older plant sometimes affects keel, peronosporosis, alternariosis, sclerotinia, phomosis, botritis and fusarium, they are also fungal diseases. Also, bacterial diseases such as black rot and vascular bacteriosis can affect the night violet. For this culture, viral diseases such as mosaic and ring spotting are very dangerous, since today they are considered incurable. In the fight against fungal diseases, fungicides are highly effective, the choice of which in specialized stores is quite wide. However, those bushes that are affected by viral or bacterial diseases must be removed from the soil and destroyed as soon as possible. The area where the affected bushes were grown for three or four years is not suitable for growing a single crop.
However, if you adhere to the rules of prevention and provide the plants with proper care, they will have high resistance to harmful insects and diseases.
Types and varieties of vespers
Evening Matron (Hesperis matronalis)
There are a lot of types of vespers, however, only one is most popular among gardeners - vespers matrons (Hesperis matronalis), or night violet. He hails from Asia Minor, the Mediterranean, Western Siberia and the Caucasus. Such a perennial plant is cultivated as a biennial. The height of erect shoots is about 0.8 m, in the upper part they are branched. Sharp oval-lanceolate leaf plates have a slightly serrated edge; they can be bare or pubescent with a white pile. Cylindrical racemose inflorescences consist of double or simple flowers, reaching about 20 mm across, they may have white, pink, lilac or purple color. Flowers begin to smell stronger in the evening and at night, and even in wet and cloudy weather. The following varieties are most popular:
- nana candidissima - the height of the bush is about half a meter, the flowers are white and fragrant;
- purpurea plena - purple flowers are terry.
Siberian Vespers (Hesperis sibirica)
This Siberian endemic is becoming more and more popular every year. In nature, this species can be found in Dauria, Sayan Mountains, Altai, Lena, Irtysh and the Yenisei. The height of such a biennial varies from 0.35 to 1.3 m. The stem branches in the upper part, and there are glandular hairs on its surface. The upper leaf plates are narrow-lanceolate and sessile, and the lower are petiolar oval-lanceolate, sharp with a serrated edge, and there is pubescence on their surface. The flowers of white or mauve color have pubescent pedicels.
Even gardeners cultivated a view of yellow evening. However, it is usually grown as a medicinal plant.
Garden flowers that bloom at night. Mattiola - Night Violet
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