Myrtle (myrtle tree): home care, transplantation and reproduction
The genus Myrtle (Myrtus) is a member of the Myrtle family and unites from about 20 to 40 species. In wild conditions, myrtle can be found on almost all continents, namely: in the USA in the state of Florida, in Europe off the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, in West Africa and in North America. This genus is represented by low evergreen trees or shrubs. One-piece, oppositely layered leaf blades are leathery to the touch. The flowers grow from the axils of the leaves, they are collected in short racemose inflorescences, they can be part of the bundles or grow individually. Such a plant is very popular among gardeners, and it is also used in medicine and perfumery - essential oil is extracted from stems and foliage. If the myrtle is properly looked after, it will grow for a very long time at home. Another interesting fact is that the culture has a phytoncidal effect.
Short description of growing
- Bloom. In the first half of the summer period.
- Illumination. The light should be bright, but diffused.
- Temperature mode. In the spring-summer period - from 18 to 20 degrees, and in winter the room should not be warmer than 10 degrees, but it is better if it is about 5 degrees.
- Watering. From spring to autumn, the plant must be watered abundantly immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture in the container dries. With a cold wintering, watering should be very scarce and rare, but it is impossible to allow complete drying of an earthen coma.
- Air humidity. Throughout the growing season, systematically moisten the bush from the sprayer with lukewarm water. In winter, you do not need to spray it.
- Fertilizer. In the spring-summer period, myrtle is regularly fed 1 time in 7 days, for this they use complex mineral fertilizer. In winter, you do not need to feed him.
- Rest period. Observed in the winter. If the bush is in the northern part of the room, then the rest period will be about 3 months, and when placed in the southern part of the apartment, it will last about 6 weeks.
- Pruning. Formative pruning is carried out every year at the beginning of the growing season.
- Transfer. Young bushes should be replanted every year, while adult specimens - 1 time in 2 or 3 years.
- Soil mix. Sand, peat, clay, sod and humus soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 2: 2: 2. And for planting, you can use a substrate consisting of sand, peat, humus and soddy soil, while all components are taken in equal proportions.
- Breeding. Cuttings and seed method.
- Harmful insects. Whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, thrips and spider mites.
- Diseases. Problems with growing myrtle can occur if you violate the rules of irrigation or due to excessively dry air.
- Properties. Myrtle is considered a healing plant, which in its effectiveness can compete with antibiotics.
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Myrtle Care at Home
Due to the fact that the myrtle needs a large amount of bright light, which must be diffused, it is recommended to grow it on the western or eastern windowsill. If it grows on a window of northern orientation, then its flowering will be more sparse. And if you place it on the southern windowsill, then in the warm season, the bush will have to shade from direct sunlight. In the summer, the flower can be transferred to the street, while he needs to choose a place that will be protected from the midday burning sun. Myrtle is accustomed to the bright light gradually.
During the spring-summer period, the bush must be kept in a cool place (from 18 to 20 degrees), because the culture reacts negatively to the heat.In winter, the myrtle is placed in a cold place (not higher than 10 degrees), while the plant feels best at this time at a temperature of about 5 degrees. In the event that during the winter the bush is warm (above 10 degrees), all leaves may fall from it. The room where the flower stands is necessarily systematically ventilated.
For watering, exclusively soft water should be used, and it should also be well settled (at least 24 hours). In spring, summer and autumn, the crop needs abundant watering, which is carried out immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries. During cold wintering, watering should be reduced, but make sure that the lump of earth in the pot does not dry out in any case. Also make sure that no fluid stagnates in the soil mixture. In the event that the earthen lump is still dry, the container, along with the bush, is immersed in a container of water.
The culture needs high air humidity, in this regard, in spring, summer and autumn, the bush is systematically moistened with a spray bottle, using well-settled and soft water for this. No need to moisten it during cold wintering
In the spring-autumn period, myrtle must be regularly fed, for this they use fertilizer for indoor plants. The frequency of feeding should be - 1 time in 7 days.
If the myrtle grows on the northern windowsill, then the duration of the rest period will be 3 months. If it is grown on the south window, then the rest period will be shorter, or rather, about 6 weeks.
Culture needs regular pruning. If the bush is not trimmed at all, then its shape will be pyramidal, when cutting the side shoots, a tree is formed, and if you trim the upper shoots, the myrtle will have the shape of a bush. Experts do not recommend, very often to cut the side shoots, the fact is that the trunk of the plant is rather weak, and with frequent pinching, flowering becomes more scarce. When grown indoors, the culture is very fast growing, in just 2 years you can form a dense and effective plant from a small bush.
Young plants are transplanted systematically every year. And adult specimens are transplanted less often, or rather, once every 2-3 years. During transplantation, do not mix the base of the trunk with soil. For planting and transplanting, you can use several different substrates:
- sand, humus, clay and soddy soil, taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 2: 2;
- connect sand, sod, humus and peat soil, which are taken in equal shares;
- plain greenhouse land.
MIRT: transplant, cuttings, care.
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In order to avoid fluid stagnation in the root system of the plant, make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot.
In sensitive people, the foliage of myrtle can cause nausea and headache.
Fill the container with soil mixture, on its surface it is necessary to evenly distribute the seeds that are sprinkled with a thin layer of the same substrate. For sowing use a soil mixture consisting of sand and peat or peat and vermiculite. Sowing seeds is carried out in a soil mixture, which is pre-watered, and then spilled with a solution of a fungicidal preparation. Crops from above are covered with glass (film), they are systematically ventilated, if necessary, watered and kept in a cool place (about 19 degrees). The first shoots should appear after 7-15 days. And when they form the first pair of real leaf plates, they should be pecked into separate pots, which are filled with a substrate consisting of peat, sod and humus soil, as well as sand (1: 1: 1: 1). After a dive, the growth of seedlings may stop for a while, but then everything normalizes.When the root system of the plants grows tight in the pots, they are transplanted by transfer to larger containers, after which they are provided with the same care as adult plants. The first flowering will begin only at the age of five.
Myrtle propagation by cuttings
Cuttings can be done twice a year: in January and July. For this purpose, semi-lignified cuttings are prepared, the length of which can vary from 50 to 80 mm, more than half of the leaf plates must be cut, while those that remain are shortened, this will reduce moisture evaporation. For better rooting, the cut site is recommended to be treated with a tool that stimulates root growth. For rooting, the cuttings are planted in boxes or plates, which are filled with an earth mixture consisting of sheet soil and coarse sand. The container with cuttings is covered with glass (film), they are cleaned in a shaded place and provide them with regular watering and ventilation. For better rooting, the air temperature is maintained at a level of 18 to 20 degrees. The roots of the cuttings grow back after 20-30 days, then they are planted in separate pots, reaching 70 mm across, which are filled with a substrate consisting of peat, turf and humus soil, and sand (1: 1: 1: 1). To stimulate flowering, myrtle will need abundant watering and pinching. After the root system of the grown plant grows very closely in the pot, it must be transferred to another container, which should be slightly larger than the previous one. The first flowering of the bush that grew from the cuttings is observed after 3 or 4 years.
The easiest and most reliable way to multiply MIRTA.
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Myrtle leaves turn yellow, fall and curl. If the myrtle lacks light, then its shoots become elongated, and the foliage grows faded and shallow. If the lighting is excessively bright, then the leaf plates will lose their luster, turn yellow and twist. Foliage can fly around if the plant is located in a room that is too warm and poorly lit.
Myrtle leaves fall. If the earthen lump in the pot is completely dry, then all the foliage can fly from the bush. In this case, shorten the stems by half, regularly moisten the bush from the sprayer and increase the abundance of watering. After about half a month, the growth of new foliage will begin.
If the bush is constantly warm, then mealybugs, thrips, whiteflies, spider mites and scale insects can settle on it.
How useful is myrtle?
Myrtle exterminates bacteria and germs, even tuberculosis and diphtheria bacilli cannot be saved from it. Such a culture makes the air cleaner, and it also destroys streptococcus and staphylococcus. It is used during the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections.
Myrtle. Features of caring for myrtle tree
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Types of myrtle with photos and names
In home floriculture, Myrtus communis is most often grown with a short branched trunk covered with exfoliating flakes of red-brown bark. The leaves are green, oval-lanceolate, glossy, leathery, with a pleasant aroma. The flowers are white or pale pink with prominent stamens, the fruits are red-black berries. It blooms from June to August. Popular cultivars: "Tarentina" - a compact bush with berries smaller than the original form, but they are much more than ordinary myrtle; the variegate variety has a creamy white pattern on green leaves.
The magnificent myrtle (Myrtus apiculata) is also interesting - a bush or tree with exfoliating brown bark, under which the trunk is creamy white. The leaves are dark green, ellipsoidal, matte. Single white flowers bloom in July-August, black-red fruits are edible.
A tree with shiny green leaves with a wrinkled edge. This species is the most stable of myrtle.
Erect bush with flowers of a pinkish tint and red edible berries.It has a motley variety with a white-cream border on the edge of the leaves.
Myrtle. Myrtle care at home.
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