Pyracantha: planting and care in the open ground, growing in the garden
The prickly evergreen shrub of a pyracantha (Pyracantha) is a representative of the Pink family. In nature, such a plant is found in southern Europe and in Southeast Asia. The name "pyracantha" comes from a pair of Greek words translated as "fire" and "thorn". If you translate the name of this genus, you get a "prickly plant with fiery red fruits," or "fiery spike." This genus unites 6-7 species. Such a shrub is cultivated as an ornamental plant, which is not resistant to frost. Only individual hybrid varieties of such a plant are able to withstand a drop in air temperature to minus 20 degrees.
Features of Pyracantha
Pyracantha is a shrub that can be growing or spreading. In height, it can reach 6 meters, and externally it has a lot of similarities with individual species of cotoneaster. On the surface of the stems are rare rather long spikes. Toothed leaf plates are evergreen. The corymbose inflorescences include white flowers. A fruit is a small berry-like apple of red or yellow color. Thanks to these fruits, this plant used to be part of the Yablonev subfamily, but later it was moved to Spireyny.
The decorativeness of this shrub lies in the fact that it blooms luxuriantly and abundantly bears fruit. Lush flowering bushes are attractive to bees, and the fruits of this plant peck birds.
Ornamental shrubs. Seed Pyracantha, experiment
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Planting pyracantha in the open ground
What time to plant
If you need to grow a species pyracantha, then this can be done in a generative (seed) way. To do this, you need to produce winter sowing. If desired, seed sowing is also carried out in the spring, however, in this case, the seed will need preliminary stratification. To do this, seeds for 6-8 weeks are placed on the shelf of the refrigerator, designed for vegetables.
The easiest way to propagate is to buy a finished seedling with a closed root system in early spring. You can do this in a specialized store or garden pavilion. These seedlings are distinguished by the fact that they are fully adapted to the conditions of the terrain and have a relatively high frost resistance. Before you buy a seedling, you must make a thorough inspection. The plantlet should not be injured or have symptoms of disease or pests. Inspect the soil mixture in the container, it should be moist, clean and free from moldy odors. Experienced gardeners recommend choosing those varieties that are characterized by higher winter hardiness and less demanding care and growing conditions, for example, you can purchase varieties of pyracanthus narrow-leaved or bright red.
Seedlings should not be purchased in autumn, since after planting in open soil in the winter they will die. Planting a seedling is carried out in the spring immediately after the soil has thawed.
This plant is thermophilic and is best developed and grows on the southern slope, which has good protection from the cold wind. In this case, both the shaded and the sunny area is suitable, however, it should be noted that under the scorching rays of the sun, the foliage on the bush will turn yellow. The lowland is not suitable for growing such a crop, as in springtime meltwater and cold air are standing there for a long time, which is detrimental to the plant.
Almost any soil is suitable for growing pyracantha, however, before starting planting a seedling, the site should be carefully prepared.About 7 days before planting, the plantlets dig the site to a depth of 0.35 to 0.4 m, while humus should be added to the soil (1 to 5 kilograms per square meter of the site). After this, the surface of the site must be leveled.
The landing pit should be a couple of times larger than the volume of the root system of the plant, which is taken together with a lump of earth. When creating a hedge between the bushes, a distance of approximately 0.6–0.9 m should be observed. The bottom of the prepared foundation pit must be loosened, and then a good drainage layer can be made, for this you can use small gravel or coarse river sand. After that, approximately in the center of the pit, you need to set the stake, driving it into the soil so that it rises about 50 centimeters above the surface of the site. Around the support with a knoll, it is necessary to pour soil connected to humus.
The plant located in the container must be abundantly watered, then it is carefully pulled out of the container together with a lump of earth and placed on a mound in a pit. When the roots are neatly straightened, the pit should begin to gradually fill up with soil, which must be rammed with your hands. Around the planted plant, a circular trench should be made into which 10-15 liters of water are poured. After all the liquid is absorbed into the soil and it settles, the bush will need a garter to the support, after which the surface of the trunk circle is covered with a layer of mulch (dry peat).
Care of a piracantha in the garden
It is quite simple to grow a pyracantha in your garden plot. The shrub should provide timely watering, weeding, top dressing and loosening of the surface of the trunk circle. In order to significantly reduce the number of weeds, irrigation and loosening, the surface of the trunk circle is covered with a layer of mulch (organic). It should be remembered that this plant needs to be pruned.
How to water
This culture is resistant to drought, and therefore it does not need systematic irrigation. But if the plant has been planted in open soil quite recently, then until it takes root, it should be provided with regular watering. The accustomed bushes should be watered only in a hot, dry period, and this should be done no more than 1 time in 7 days. If the plant does not have enough water, then its foliage becomes lethargic, and the shoots begin to turn yellow and become too soft. To prevent water from spreading over the site during irrigation, it should be poured into a pre-prepared trench dug around the perimeter of the trunk circle. It should be noted that the deeper the soil is saturated with water during irrigation, the better. When the bush is watered, it is necessary to well loosen the surface of the trunk circle, and also remove all weed grass.
Often, such a plant does not need to be fed. The first top dressing is carried out at the beginning of intensive bush growth; for this, a complex mineral fertilizer with a low nitrogen content is used. The same feeding is carried out in the last summer weeks.
Shrub transplantation is carried out in the same way as the initial planting. First you need to prepare a landing pit, which should be a couple of times larger than the estimated size of the root system, taken along with a lump of earth. After that, a bush is removed from the ground and placed in a prepared pit. It should be remembered that the transplanted plant must be provided with systematic, frequent and plentiful watering, which will help the pyracantha to take root in a new place as soon as possible.
Such a shrub needs a systematic forming pruning. Pruning can be carried out throughout the season. However, experienced gardeners recommend the first time to cut the bush in the middle of the spring period, the second time in the middle of autumn, and the last time in the deep autumn, practically in the first winter weeks.It should be understood that pyracantha and sea buckthorn need to be grown and pruned in different ways, despite the fact that these plants have an external resemblance.
When the shrub blooms in spring, you should prune it as you wish. So, if you wish, you can not cut out part of the inflorescences, after a while decorative berries grow on them. When pruning, it should be remembered that the formation of fruits and flowers is observed only on those stems that are more than 1 year old. The second time to cut the bush should be in the middle of the autumn period, while you need to cut all those stems and branches that thicken the bush or obscure the ripening apples, which begin to rot from this. The last pruning for the season is carried out in late autumn, while you need to cut out all the extra stems, branches and foliage. During pruning at any time of the year, stems cannot be shortened by more than 1/3 of the length.
If the bush is already old, he will need anti-aging pruning, for this the bush is shortened to 0.3 m relative to the surface of the site. Remember that pruning should be done by protecting your hands with very tight gloves, because there are many spikes on the pyracantha. This plant can be used to decorate the walls of the building, for this the stems should be directed along the supports in the necessary direction, while do not forget to fix them. In this case, pruning the bush may not be needed at all.
Propagation of Pyracantha
To propagate such a plant, you can use seeds or green cuttings. It is possible to produce winter or spring sowing of pyracantha seeds. Before sowing seed in the spring, it needs to be stratified. But it should be noted that the plant grown from seeds cannot preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.
Most gardeners prefer to propagate such a shrub vegetatively, or rather, cuttings or layering. With this method of propagation, it will be possible to maintain the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. Such a culture can be propagated by lignified or green cuttings, while the latter give roots much faster. Harvesting cuttings is carried out in the spring during pruning. For this, pruned branches are taken, in length reaching from 15 to 20 centimeters. From the bottom of the handle, you need to remove all leaf plates, then the lower section should be immersed in a solution of a stimulating root growth agent. After that, they are planted at an angle to humidified sand, while on top of the container should be covered with a cap, which must be transparent. Provide cuttings with regular ventilation and watering. After about 20 days, the cuttings will have to take root, but they will need to be grown in greenhouse conditions for 12 months, and only with the onset of the next spring period can the grown plants be planted in open soil. To create a hedge, seedlings from cuttings in greenhouse conditions have been growing for two years.
If the garden already has an adult shrub, then for its propagation it is easiest to use layering. To do this, in spring, you should choose several powerful, absolutely healthy and low-growing stems. Under the plant, it is necessary to make the necessary number of grooves into which the selected shoots are then laid, only their tops should rise above the soil surface. After the stems are fixed in the grooves, they need to be covered with nutrient soil. Throughout the season, layering should be provided with regular watering and weeding; for wintering, they should be covered with a layer of fallen leaves. With the onset of spring, layering should be cut off from the parent bush and transplanted to a new permanent place.
173. Planting by seeds.
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Some species of this plant have a fairly high frost resistance. For example, a narrow-leaved pyracantha grown in the Moscow region and Moscow is able to winter in the open ground.However, in order to protect plants from possible severe frosts and little snowy winters, the surface of the trunk circle must be covered with a sufficiently thick layer of flying leaves. If during wintering the plant suffers from frost and freezes to the root neck, then the protected roots will remain intact and the bush will recover quite quickly in spring, but do not forget to cut all damaged branches and stems during the first pruning.
Diseases and pests
Pyracantha has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests. Quite rarely, aphids inhabit such a shrub. And most often this happens if the plant is too weak due to improper care or violation of the rules of agricultural technology. Immediately after the aphid is found on the bush, it must be sprayed with a solution of an insecticidal preparation, it should not be postponed for later, because insects multiply rapidly and can settle on neighboring plants or infect a pyracantha with an incurable disease.
Another such culture is susceptible to infection with a bacterial burn, which is considered an incurable disease. In this regard, experienced gardeners recommend growing only those varieties that are resistant to this disease. Still such a shrub can infect scab or late blight, and this also happens due to the fact that the plant is poorly looked after or does not comply with the rules of agricultural technology of this culture. You can cure the plant with a solution of a fungicidal drug, for example, Fundazole.
Types and varieties of pyracantha with photos and names
In the middle latitudes only 2 species of pyracantha are cultivated.
Narrow-leaved pyracantha (Pyracantha angustifolia)
This plant comes from Southwest China. The height of such an evergreen shrub is about 400 cm, there are thorns on the branches. The length of narrow leaf plates is about 50 mm, they have a reverse lanceolate or oblong shape, their base is wedge-shaped, and the apex is pointed. The upper part of the leaves can be jagged or whole-edge. Young foliage on the front surface has pubescence. Mature plates are bare, and on their seamy surface there is a light gray pubescence. Inflorescences of a corymbose shape consist of white flowers, which in diameter reach 0.8 cm. Spherical slightly pressed fruits in diameter reach 0.8 cm, as a rule, they have a rich orange color. This species has a fairly high resistance to frost. Popular varieties:
- Orange Glow. The height of the erect bush is about 250 cm, its branches are relatively rare. The foliage is colored green, if the winter months are warm, then it remains on the bush. Such a shrub blooms in May. Saturated orange fruits have a rounded shape.
- Golden Charmer. This variety is characterized by rapid growth and arched stems. The height of the bush is about 300 cm. The plant blooms in May with dense corymbose inflorescences consisting of white flowers. The diameter of the orange apples is about 10 mm. This variety is resistant to drought and urban polluted air, but if there is severe frost in the winter, the bush may freeze.
Pyracantha bright red (Pyracantha coccinea)
Originally from the southern part of Europe and from Asia Minor, this shrub prefers to grow on the edges, clearings and in light forests. A wide-spreading bush has a height of up to two meters, often its lower stems spread along the surface of the soil. The length of glossy leathery sheet plates is about 40 mm; they have an oblong-elliptical or lanceolate shape. In spring and summer, the foliage has a dark green color, and in the autumn - rich red. The flowers are painted in yellow pink or white. The spherical coral-red apples in diameter reach 60 mm. This plant is resistant to drought, but its frost resistance is relatively low, so when preparing for winter it needs to be covered.The fruits of such a shrub can be eaten, in any case, birds are happy to eat them in the cold season. Popular varieties:
- Red Column. This variety is quite popular among gardeners. The flowers are small and painted white, they are part of an umbrella-shaped inflorescence. Saturated red apples are small in size.
- Red Cash. The height of such a semi-evergreen shrub is about 200 cm. The stems are elastic and straight. The color of the fruit is bright red.
Still cultivate such species as: pyracantha scarlet and pyracanthus town. However, they are grown in mid-latitudes exclusively at home, as they have very low frost resistance.
Pyracantha in landscape design
Pyracantha is quite popular among gardeners due to lush, long flowering, as well as spectacular berries. Such a shrub is suitable for hedges, because it looks very impressive and grows quite densely, and it also has thorns that will not let uninvited guests pass. Even in the middle of winter, fruits and foliage do not lose their saturated color, in this regard, such a shrub is perfect for decorating various buildings and walls, but you need to remember that the shoots should be guided along the support and fixed, since they will not do it on their own. Despite this, such a crop is an ideal option for vertical gardening.
Such a shrub can be grown in small groups or as a single plant. It is suitable for decorating borders, decorating rocky slides, as well as for creating a background for mixborders. This plant has an unusual property to remember the position relative to the support. So, if you remove the support, then the bush will retain the shape familiar to it. Such a shrub is often used to form bonsai; it looks very impressive as a tree with several or one stem or in the form of a cascade.