Powdery mildew: how to get rid of flowers, vegetables, shrubs and trees
Powdery mildew, also called linen, or ashtray, is a fungal disease, it is caused by microscopic fungi from the order of erysiphous or powdery mildew that live in the ground. This disease affects most crops, for example: grapes, roses, gooseberries, cereals, peaches, pumpkin crops and sugar beets. In this case, the signs of the disease in each plant are the same, but the pathogens are different. For example, American powdery mildew, which affects peach, gooseberries, and roses, is caused by three different sphere libraries.
Powdery Mildew Features
The first sign of the defeat of the plant by powdery mildew is the appearance of a coating of whitish mycelium, while moisture drops appear on its surface. Such a plaque can form on the petioles and leaf blades, on young shoots, and also on the stalks and fruits of various cultures. First, the stems and foliage that are closest to the surface of the soil are affected, after which the disease begins to spread gradually, covering the entire bush. If you look at the plaque carefully, you can consider that in those places where the mycelium attaches to the plant, sores form. It gradually fades and loses its decorative effect, since the fungus takes away nutrients from it, in addition, photosynthesis is disrupted by foliage on which there is plaque. A culture affected by such an illness becomes less resistant to frost. Cracks appear on the fruits that are affected by the disease, rot pathogens can penetrate through them, which leads to secondary infection.
The fungus is most active under the following conditions:
- during prolonged rains or at high humidity (from 60 to 80 percent) at a temperature of 15–27 degrees;
- a sharp change in temperature is often observed;
- after radical pruning performed to rejuvenate the plant;
- the earth contains an excessively large amount of nitrogen;
- plantings are very thickened;
- the wrong irrigation regime was chosen, or rather, if the soil often dries up or stagnation of water is regularly observed in it.
Ways to fight
Powdery Mildew Treatment
If you are sure that the culture is affected by powdery mildew, it is necessary to remove from it all the peduncles and leaf plates that have turned yellow and wilted. Sometimes you have to cut a significant part of the foliage, but you should not be afraid of this, since by removing the affected parts of the plant, you increase the chances of its recovery.
Next, carefully treat the diseased bush with a fungicidal preparation, the solution should moisten all its aboveground parts well. At the same time, the treatment mixture should flow down the plant during treatment as if it had just passed a very heavy rain. If a crop growing in open ground is treated, then with it a fungicidal preparation solution is also necessarily treated and the surface of the soil on the bed or in the trunk circle.
Such a disease can affect home plants, what to do in this case? After the bush is well treated with fungicide, they should also spray the walls of the container in which it grows, and the surface of the substrate. If the plant is very affected, then the top layer of the soil mixture, which contains the colony of mushroom mycelium, will have to be removed from the tank, and a new substrate is poured in its place, which must first be disinfected.
In order to get rid of powdery mildew, an integrated approach is needed. In addition to mandatory chemical treatments, special agrotechnical measures are used:
- watering is carried out only when the top soil layer dries well;
- in autumn, the site must be cleaned of plant debris, which are then destroyed;
- it is necessary to adhere to the rules of crop rotation;
- for cultivation, choose hybrids and varieties that are highly resistant to powdery mildew;
- Do not introduce too much nitrogen fertilizer into the soil, especially during the formation of buds;
- timely introduce phosphate-potassium fertilizers into the soil, as they contribute to increasing the resistance of the culture to the disease;
- in spring, it is imperative to carry out sanitary pruning of shrubs and trees;
- regularly spray trees and bushes with a fungicidal preparation for prevention, do this in early spring and at the end of leaf fall.
Still for the purpose of prevention, plants are sprayed with other chemical agents that are used in the fight against powdery mildew. For example, the bushes are pollinated 3 or 4 times with sulfur, you can also spray them 3 times with a solution of Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate or other product that has a similar effect.
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Powdery mildew on vegetables
If cucumbers are affected by powdery mildew, then fungicidal preparations and folk remedies can be used to treat them. However, it is impossible to get rid of powdery mildew in this vegetable crop without preventive measures. First of all, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of cucumbers, and also beds need to be sprayed with a solution of Quadrice (strictly follow the instructions on the package). But in some cases, the disease still affects the plant, even despite preventive measures.
What to do to cure cucumbers? For the treatment of such a vegetable culture, both folk and chemical agents can be used. However, whatever you choose, before proceeding with the treatment, you must remove and destroy all parts of the bush affected by the disease.
Powder dusting a plant with sulfur powder helps quite well in the fight against powdery mildew, while from 10 to 30 grams of planting is taken from 25 to 30 grams of the drug. Also, cucumbers can be sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (for 10 liters of water from 25 to 30 grams). Even powdery mildew in this culture is fought with the help of mullein infusion, which also needs to be treated with bushes.
Of the fungicidal preparations, Topaz or Oksikhom is most often used in this case, if you decide to use them, then be sure to strictly follow the instructions attached to the tool.
Powdery mildew may appear on tomatoes due to 2 types of mushrooms. One of them is Oidiopsis erysiphoides, it most often affects bushes grown in greenhouse conditions. As a rule, this happens in March, if the greenhouse was not disinfected before planting seedlings. In affected seedlings, the leaf plates begin to dry from the edges, if you do not start treating it in time, then it is likely that it will die. Another causative agent of this disease is Oidiopsis taurica. In tomatoes affected by powdery mildew, yellow spots form on the front surface of the foliage. In the beginning, a whitish coating is formed only on the wrong surface of the leaf plates, but as the disease develops, it also appears on the upper side of the foliage.
In order to prevent the defeat of tomatoes with powdery mildew, you need to adhere to those preventive measures that have been described above. And even before sowing the seed material, it is recommended to immerse the tomato for 42 hours in a solution of Epin or Immunocytophyte. However, if, nevertheless, the vegetable crop is struck by powdery mildew, the fight against it must be started as soon as possible. It is recommended to spray young plants with a solution of sodium humate; it is able to completely suppress the germination of conidia, which are the causative agents of this disease. Processing of tomatoes is carried out regularly 1 time in half a month, while the instructions must be strictly followed.Also for this purpose, you can use biological products that are specially created to combat powdery mildew. For example, you can use a solution of Bactofit (1%), they should be sprayed with tomatoes 3 times with an interval of 1-1.5 weeks. At the same time, treatment should be started immediately after the onset of the first symptoms of the disease. You can still cure tomatoes with Planriz culture fluid, which the bushes also begin to process after the first symptoms of the disease appear.
Of the fungicidal preparations, the most effective are: Strobi, Topaz, Quadris, Tiovit Jet, Bayleton and Privent. In order to better “stick” to the sprayed plant, a small amount of laundry soap or silicate glue should be added to the solution. For those who do not want to use chemical preparations for the treatment of vegetable crops, whey (10%), wood ash or reverse can be used for treatment and prevention.
If the zucchini was struck by powdery mildew, and a white coating formed on them, all diseased leaf plates and stems should be cut and destroyed, and the soil surface should be dug around the bushes. In order to cure plants, they can be treated with a solution of wood ash, soda ash or mullein. Most often, gardeners use chemicals such as Carboran, Kefalon or sodium phosphate, as they are very effective in controlling this disease.
Preventive spraying is carried out at the beginning of the spring with Nitrafen solution. For medicinal purposes, the treatment is carried out before the plant blooms and at the end of flowering, using the drugs described above. When using fungicidal agents, at least three treatments will be needed, which are carried out with an interval of 1-1.5 weeks, while folk remedies are treated with zucchini regularly every two days. Processing is recommended in the evening on a fine day.
Eggplant, affected by powdery mildew, can be cured with a solution of soda ash, and for this you can use any fungicidal preparation, for example, Fundazole (10 grams per 1 bucket of water). In order for the plants to fully recover, they will need at least 4 or 5 sprays with a break of seven days.
Onions are affected by peronosporosis (downy mildew). Such a fungal disease is also very dangerous for vegetables. Its development is promoted by low temperature and high humidity. The causative agents of this disease are carried by raindrops or by the wind, and also with the remains of plants.
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Powdery mildew control on shrubs and trees
It is difficult not to notice currant bushes affected by powdery mildew. And if you do not immediately begin to fight this disease, then by the second half of the summer period, the whole currant can be affected. It does not matter which currant is affected by powdery mildew, black, white or red, this disease is equally dangerous for it.
You can try to cure diseased currant bushes with both folk remedies and chemical preparations. It is necessary to spray the shrub on each side, while trying to ensure that the solution of the drug falls not only on all leaf plates, but also on each of its surfaces: both on the top and on the bottom. The plant can be treated with a sprayer or with a soft bristle brush. Processing currant bushes should be done in the evening at sunset, while you need to choose a nice dry day. Processing should be carried out for at least four weeks, while shrubs are sprayed at least once every seven days.
Also, for the treatment of currant bushes, folk remedies are often used, which have been tested by time.For example, they can be treated with soda ash, whey, a solution of wood ash or cow dung, a pink solution of potassium permanganate, dusted with sulfur, etc. As a rule, folk remedies are used only at the initial stage of the disease, if the bushes are very severe Then you will have to use special chemicals. In spring, they are treated with a solution of Nitrafen or iron sulfate (30 grams per water bucket), and copper sulfate (10 grams of the drug per water bucket) can also be used. During the formation of buds, a solution of copper oxychloride is used to spray the bushes, for the preparation of which it combines a bucket of water with 30 grams of the drug or a Bordeaux mixture (1%). When the currant fades twice or thrice it is treated with soda ash with a break of one and a half weeks. In autumn, all plant residues must be removed from under the plants.
The methods for controlling powdery mildew on gooseberries are exactly the same as those used to treat currants. To spray such crops, kefir, cow dung, wood ash, whey, sour milk, baking soda or soda ash, as well as a decoction of tansy or horsetail and an infusion of onion husks or fresh hay are used. The most effective chemicals in the fight against powdery mildew are Haupsin, ammonium nitrate and Trichodermin. And Fitosporin in the treatment of the disease is just as effective as in the treatment of late blight.
The powdery mildew that grapes can get is called oidium. The first symptoms of such a disease is the same whitish bloom that forms on the shoots, fruits, foliage and stems. The disease develops most actively with high humidity and a temperature of 18 to 25 degrees, but during rains there is a slowdown in the spread of infection. In the summer, when the air temperature does not drop below 20 degrees, the grapes are treated with sulfur, so for treatment they use a solution for the preparation of which 1 bucket of water and from 80 to 100 grams of the drug are combined, and for prevention, from 25 to 40 grams of substance per 10 liters of water. If the weather is cool, then sulfuric preparations, for example, a solution of colloidal sulfur, are used for processing. But during the formation of fruits, it is not recommended to use chemicals for processing. Not less than 30 days before harvesting, you must stop spraying the grapes with those drugs that are toxic to the human body.
During the filling and ripening of fruits, grapes affected by powdery mildew can be treated with a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate, this will stop the development of the disease. And after all the fruits are harvested, chemicals can be used to process the plants. Such a culture can be treated with fungicidal drugs, the most effective in this case will be: Tiovit Jet, Quadris and Topaz.
If apple trees are severely affected by powdery mildew, this can have an extremely negative effect on their productivity, reducing it by half. In addition, apple trees may become less resistant to frost. Such a disease is a great danger to nurseries, as it spreads very quickly from tree to tree.
There are also effective remedies that will help cure apple trees and other fruit trees from powdery mildew. Most often, a solution of soda ash mixed with soap, colloidal sulfur or copper chloride is used to treat the affected plant, and spraying is carried out regularly once every three or four days. It also helps very well in the fight against powdery mildew on Topaz apple trees, and in order to prevent them, they begin to be processed from the beginning of the growing season.If the plant is already affected by the disease, then it will have to be sprayed with Topaz solution 3 or 4 times with an interval of 6-12 days. In order to prevent the spread of the disease, before starting treatment, all affected parts of the tree are cut and destroyed.
If powdery mildew affects the strawberries, then it will be possible to understand this by the whitish coating that forms on the underside of the sheet plates, because of this they eventually become leathery to the touch, while the edges of them curl and turn into a bronze color. The highest concentration of powdery coating is observed on the mustache, as well as on the central leaf plates. On the fruits formed on the diseased bush, a white coating also forms, and they also have a moldy smell. For preventive purposes, do not allow thickening of plantings; for this, strawberries need to be thinned and transplanted regularly. For the treatment of diseased plants, a suspension of colloidal sulfur (1%) or TMTD is used, as well as such agents as Bayleton, Switch, Kvadris or Fundazol, while spraying is carried out after the bushes have flowered, as well as after harvesting. During spraying, make sure that the product moistens both surfaces of the leaf plates.
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Powdery mildew in garden flowers
Powdery mildew affects not only vegetable, fruit and berry crops, but also garden flowers. For example, a whitish bloom in the middle of the summer period can form on foliage and shoots of phlox. As the disease develops, he changes his color to darker and, in the end, becomes dirty brown. Because of this, the decorativeness of plants suffers greatly.
If the first symptoms of the disease were found on phloxes, then you need to cut off all the affected leaf plates from the flowers as soon as possible and dig out the very diseased bushes, after which they are burned. The remaining plants must be sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (1%), while several treatments are carried out with an interval of seven days. As a preventive measure, the soil surface on the flower bed is covered with a layer of mulch (peat or humus), and in early spring after the stems are 100 mm tall, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture, 3 treatments will be needed, which are carried out once every 12-14 days. In order for the flowers to be more resistant to such a disease, it is recommended to use full mineral fertilizer as top dressing.
Powdery mildew affects a variety of flowering plants, it does not bypass roses. If the bushes are very damaged, then all the foliage that is on them will curl up, dry and fly around before the due date, while a felt coating forms on the surface of bare stems and shoots, it will not allow the flowers to grow and develop further. In order to prevent the development of this disease, the surface of the area near the roses should always be clean, while trying to remove weeds almost immediately after their appearance. In autumn, when leaf fall is over and sanitary pruning is carried out, the site must be cleaned of all plant debris that should be destroyed. And the soil surface under the bushes needs to be dug up.
As soon as the first signs of the disease are detected on the bushes, you need to start processing them immediately. To do this, use a solution of Fundazole, Maxim, colloidal sulfur or Fitosporin-M. At the beginning of spring or in autumn, it is recommended to spray roses with powdery mildew with the following mixture: 0.3 kg of green soap, 15 grams of copper chloroxide, and another 50 grams of soda ash are taken per 1 bucket of water.
Petunia is also susceptible to powdery mildew. A whitish coating appears on the surface of the bushes, which eventually spreads to all the aboveground parts of the plant.Because of this disease, rot forms on the flowers, and they die. In order to save them, it is necessary to cut out all the affected areas of the petunias and destroy the ear, after which the flowers are treated with a fungicidal agent, for example, Skor, Previkur, Topaz or Fundazol. In the case when the flowers are not grown in the open field, but in a container or a pot, you will need to remove the top layer of the substrate and pour fresh soil mixture instead, which is pre-treated with Fitosporin-M.
Of all the folk remedies used to combat this disease in petunias, the treatment with ash or soap-soda solution is most effective, and for this purpose you can use potassium permanganate, whey, mustard or garlic infusion.
Foliage, buds and shoots suffer from mildew in a garden violet, which is also called a viola. The most common causes of the development of the disease are: an excessively large amount of nitrogen in the soil or abundant morning dew on a dry day. Ill bushes become less spectacular, and they bloom much less than the prescribed time. In this case, to cure the flowers, use chemicals such as: Topsin-M, Fundazol, Morestan, Ftalan, Kuprozan, Tsineb, and even the bushes can be sprayed with a solution of soda ash, to which a little soap is added.
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Powdery mildew on indoor plants
Some domestic flowers are also affected by powdery mildew, for example: begonia, cissus, senpolia, gerbera, rose and Kalanchoe. As a rule, the disease begins to develop due to stale air with its high humidity, sharp fluctuations in temperature day and night and dry soil mixtures. The causative agents of such a disease can be transferred from the affected bush to a healthy air stream, by pests or during contact with each other (containers with flowers are very close). You can understand that the flower is sick by the formed whitish spots, which can be found on both surfaces of the leaf plates, as well as on the buds. Immediately after the detection of such symptoms, you need to start the fight against the disease. If the treatment is started too late, then the flower may lose its decorative effect, and even rot will appear on it. At the very beginning of the development of the disease, the bushes can be treated with garlic infusion or a solution of potassium permanganate or soda ash. If the plant is very ill, then chemicals can not be dispensed with, in this case, Skor, Hom, Vectra, Bayleton, Fundazol, Vitaros, Topaz or Tiovit Jet are used. Before preparing the solution, it is necessary to carefully study the instructions attached to the drug.
As preventive measures, you should properly water the flowers, feed them with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, systematically ventilate the room, and do not forget to observe plant hygiene.
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Preparations and folk remedies for powdery mildew
The following chemicals are most often used in the fight against powdery mildew: Skor, Quadrice, Hom, Vectra, Tiovit Jet, Fundazim, Fundazol, Vitaros, Bayleton, Ftalan, Tsineb, Kuprozan, Topsin-M, Fitosporin-M, Previkur, Switch, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, copper chloride, colloidal sulfur, etc. These funds can be purchased in a specialized store, while they must be used strictly following the instructions attached to the drug and in no case should you increase the dosage yourself.
If fungicides were chosen for spraying home flowers affected by powdery mildew, then the procedure will need to be carried out on the street, and safety precautions must be followed.It is recommended to spray fruit bushes and trees, as well as berry and vegetable crops with such chemicals only if they are very severely affected, however, during the active growth of fruits, all treatments with chemicals should be stopped.
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At the initial stage of the development of the disease for the treatment of plants, as a rule, folk remedies are used. There are many time-tested folk remedies that are absolutely not dangerous both for humans and for cultures. For example:
- A solution of soda and soap. For its preparation, it is necessary to dissolve in one bucket of water 20 grams of liquid soap or ground soap on a grater, as well as 50 grams of baking soda or soda ash. Spray the plant should be at least two times with a break of 7 days.
- Whey solution. In order to prepare such a tool, you need to combine 1 liter of serum with 1 bucket of water. A well-mixed mixture is sprayed on a dry day, such procedures should be at least three with interruptions of three days.
- Kefir solution. To prepare the product, you will need a liter of fermented yogurt or kefir, it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. It will take three treatments with an interval of three days.
- Horsetail. A decoction is prepared from field horsetail; for this, 100 grams of grass is mixed with a liter of water. The mixture is allowed to infuse for 24 hours, and then brought to a boil and kept on low heat for a couple of hours. When the broth cools down, it is filtered and mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 5. For a complete cure of the plant, at least 3 or 4 sprayings are required, which are carried out with an interval of five days. Undiluted broth, placed in a cool and dark place, retains its properties for seven days.
- Mustard. In one bucket of lukewarm water, you need to dissolve 2 large tablespoons of dry mustard powder. The resulting solution, the diseased plant is either watered or treated.
- Potassium permanganate. To make such a solution, you need to mix a bucket of water with 5 grams of potassium permanganate. Such a mixture helps to stop the development of the disease, and it also removes the fungus from the surface of the fruit.
- Wood ash. For 1 bucket of water, 1 kilogram of ash is taken. The infusion will be ready after a week. It is carefully drained and added to it 20 grams of household or liquid soap crushed on a grater. By means of a plant are sprayed regularly every two days.
- Cow Dung (Mullein). Combine water and manure in a ratio of 3: 1 and mix well. The infusion will be ready after 3 days. It must be carefully drained and diluted with the same amount of water. This means of culture is sprayed before they bloom, after flowering, and also shortly before the beginning of leaf fall.
- Garlic. To prepare the infusion in a couple of liters of water, pour 50 grams of garlic pulp (cloves chopped together with garlic shoots). After a couple of days, the product is filtered and used for undiluted treatments.
- Onion husk. 1 bucket of boiling water is combined with 200 grams of onion peel. The infusion will be ready after 2 days, it remains only to strain. Processing crops is carried out before flowering, after the bushes have faded, and even before the beginning of leaf fall.
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