Katarantus: home care, seed cultivation, species
Those who at least once had a chance to see a room catharanthus certainly want to decorate their home with it. The fact is that this neat bush, decorated with many beautiful flowers, can not leave anyone indifferent. The name of such a plant in Greek means "clear, clean or flawless flower."
This plant is quite widespread in indoor culture. Most gardeners are confident that catharanthus is the king of indoor flowering shrubs. The fact is that it is distinguished by its undemanding care, but this plant blooms almost throughout the year.
Features of Catharanthus
The flowering plant, Catharanthus, is a member of the Apocynaceae family. This genus is represented by evergreen shrubs and herbaceous plants. Such a plant can be found in areas with a tropical climate, for example, on the territory of Java, Indochina, Cuba, Africa, Indonesia, and others. Where scientists haven’t come to the cataractus until now, however, some experts believe that Madagascar is its homeland, where it is common most widely. On this island there are 7 or 8 species of catharanthus.
Under natural conditions, such a plant can reach a height of up to 150 cm. At the same time, a room catharanthus, as a rule, does not exceed 60 cm. In room culture, it began to be grown from the second half of the 18th century. For many years, experts thought that this plant is a variety of pink periwinkle, and it was not isolated into a separate genus. These plants are very similar to each other, and both are part of the Kutrovy family. However, in 1937, after long disputes, it was decided to consider the pink catharanthus (Catharanthus roseus) to be an evergreen semi-shrub perennial and separate it into a separate genus of Katarantus.
In fact, cataractus is a perennial, but at home it is most often cultivated as an annual plant. In indoor conditions, such a plant, as a rule, reaches a height of no more than 0.5–0.6 m. In the upper part, fleshy and erect shoots branch, and their lignification is also observed over time. The root system of this shrub is rod and quite powerful. In depth, the central root is able to reach from 0.2 to 0.3 m, it has a large number of lateral adnexal roots, which have a specific rather sharp aroma. Young roots do not have root hairs. The length of the oblong sheet plates is about 70 mm; they are pointed both from the bottom and from the top.
Naked shiny foliage is painted in a dark green hue, and its central vein is decorated with white. A flowering bush is completely covered with a large number of flowers of a wheel shape. In diameter, flowers of regular shape can reach from 30 to 50 mm. They consist of 5 petals and a flat corolla, with thyroid hairs covering its pharynx. In the middle, each flower has a peephole, which is painted in a rich contrasting color cast. To date, there are hybrids, the color of the flowers in which is orange, violet-blue, white or pale lilac. Externally, the flowers of this plant and phlox are very similar to each other. However, they are solitary in cataractus, while in phlox flowers are part of inflorescences. However, during the period of intensive flowering, which begins in May and ends in October, a huge number of single flowers appear on the bush, they cover it with a magnificent hat. The plant ceases to bloom after the onset of cold. At the end of flowering, fruits are formed on the bush, which are a crescent double-leaf. About ten elongated seeds are inside the fetus.
Katarantus is a very effective plant, but it is appreciated not only for this.The fact is that it has healing properties. In Indonesia and Madagascar, such a shrub was used by doctors and healers to treat cough, diabetes and a variety of tumors. The composition of the green parts of the bush includes about sixty biologically active alkaloids. Currently, scientists have proven that this plant has substances that help reduce the amount of sugar in the blood. Vincristine and vinblastine alkaloids were also isolated from the cataranthus, which served as the basis for the manufacture of drugs designed to fight cancer. These medicines are used in hospitals today.
The stems and foliage of such a shrub is used in folk medicine for the preparation of various decoctions and infusions that are used to treat:
- polyp, myomas, prostate adenomas;
- broncho-pulmonary diseases;
- trophic ulcers and wounds that do not heal well;
- diseases of the gums and teeth;
- diabetes and hypertension.
If you decide to use Catharanthus for treatment, then remember that all its parts contain toxic substances. That is why, without certain experience and knowledge, it is extremely undesirable to cook any medicines from this plant yourself! Otherwise, an allergic reaction may develop due to self-prepared medicine, serious side effects may appear or burns may form. Funds made from Catharanthus have contraindications. The use of such funds is recommended only on the advice of the attending doctor and under his supervision.
Katarantus - cultivation, care.
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Care for catharanthus at home
In order for the room catharantus to please you with its appearance and bloom profusely, you need to take care of it correctly. These rules are quite simple, but they must be followed. The main thing when working with this plant is to remember that all its parts contain poison. Therefore, before you start working with him, do not forget to wear rubberized gloves, then you will be able to avoid poisoning or the development of an allergic reaction.
Watering and humidity
This plant is distinguished by its moisture loving nature. In order for its bloom to be magnificent, it must be in conditions of high humidity of both air and soil in the pot. Such a plant negatively reacts to dry air. Therefore, if the air humidity in the room is less than 60 percent, then the air around the plant must be regularly moistened with a spray gun, and the bush itself must be sprayed very carefully. Catharanthus foliage can be moistened with a spray bottle, and flowers are highly discouraged! To increase the level of humidity in the room, an open vessel with water is installed near the bush, and wet pebbles or expanded clay is poured into the pallet.
Do not forget to water such a plant systematically. In no case do not allow his root system to dry out. If the watering is excessively rare or scarce, then the quarantine will signal this with foliage, which will begin to curl. If you notice this in time and pour the bush, then the foliage will return to normal pretty quickly. However, when watering, it should be borne in mind that water should not stagnate either in the substrate or in the pan. Try to choose a watering regime such that the soil mixture in the pot is always slightly moist. Humidify the substrate in the pot only when its top layer dries 20-30 mm deep. If you want to grow catharanthus as a perennial, then in autumn and winter it is provided with more scarce and rare watering. In the event that the level of humidity in the room is always low, then moisten the foliage of the plant from the spray regularly at any time of the year.
Katarantus needs diffused light. That is why it is recommended to choose western and eastern windows for its cultivation.Also, the bush can be put on the south window, but in this case it will have to be protected from the scorching rays of the sun in the afternoon. A pot with a bush can be put and not on the windowsill. It normally develops and grows in a slightly shaded place and looks spectacular on a shelf that is lit by the scattered rays of the sun. If the catharanthus is warm in winter, then it will also require a large amount of diffused light. If he lacks light, then this will have an extremely negative effect on his decorativeness, as his shoots will actively stretch. If there is not enough sunlight, then give the plant backlighting with fluorescent lamps.
Indoor cataranthus is best in spring and summer grows at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees. When wintering a perennial plant, it is cleaned in a cool place where the air temperature should be about 15 degrees. In no case do not keep a bush near working heating appliances at this time. He wintered well on an insulated loggia. But remember that catharanthus cannot be in the cold. If it remains at a temperature below 10 degrees for a long time, it may die. If you decide to throw a bush in the autumn immediately after it fades, then keep it in a warm place. In this case, it will bloom long and magnificent.
In the warm season, the bush can be moved to the street. In spring, after the air in the street warms up to 18 degrees and above, the bush can be transferred to the veranda or balcony. For a flower, choose a place that will have reliable protection from drafts, rainfall and direct sunlight. In August or September, as soon as it starts to get colder, it is recommended to transfer the plant to the house. It will still bloom in room conditions until October.
To grow such a flower, it is recommended to use a light, loose substrate saturated with nutrients. If you wish, you can buy a mixture in a specialized store intended for indoor flowering plants, for example, geraniums. You can make it with your own hands, for this, combine sod and leaf soil. Mix the prepared mix with a little coarse river sand and peat.
In order to achieve lush and prolonged flowering, the catharanthus should be fed regularly and with a sufficient amount of fertilizer. If you cultivate this plant as an annual, then its top dressing is carried out systematically 1 time in 7 days. Liquid fertilizer for indoor flowering plants should be diluted in the water used for irrigation. For example, you can use liquid fertilizer for indoor roses. The dosage indicated on the package should be adhered to; do not overfeed the cataranthus.
If you decide to grow Catharanthus as a perennial, then you should take care of its strength. That is why dressing in this case during flowering is carried out 2 times less often, or rather, 1 time in 15 days. In this case, the dosage of fertilizer should be reduced by half. When flowering ends, all dressings should be stopped, they are not carried out from October to February.
When choosing the appropriate capacity, it should be borne in mind that this flower belongs to the fast-growing. If for planting you choose a small pot, then the root system of the bush will soon fill it and it will become very crowded. In this regard, the choice should be stopped at a large capacity in which the bush can grow throughout the year. The root system of such a plant is well developed and can reach 0.2–0.35 m in length. This must be taken into account when choosing a flower pot. Do not forget to make a thick drainage layer (from 30 to 40 mm) at its bottom, for this you can take pebbles, expanded clay or other material suitable for this.After that, fill it with a layer of substrate, which is recommended to be combined with a small amount of humus, which will increase its fertility.
The cataractus is transplanted every year, and for this, a container is used, which should be 30-50 mm larger in diameter than the old pot.
Since this flower is characterized by rapid growth, it must be cut off. If the catharanthus is grown as a perennial, then after wintering, all elongated stems are shortened by 1/3. It is also necessary to cut off all dry and injured branches, at the same time they also conduct forming pruning. This procedure is carried out in early spring, it will help rejuvenate the bush.
In order for the plant to have a neat and lush crown, the tops of the stems of a young bush should be nipped regularly. Due to this, the shoots will cease to stretch, instead, the active growth of the lateral branches will begin, due to which the crown will become more magnificent and spectacular. During the flowering period, the decorativeness of this plant should be maintained constantly. To do this, timely remove wilted flowers and yellow foliage, which is located in the lower part of the stems.
A shrub grown as a perennial needs regular transplants, which are carried out every year in early spring (in March). After transplanting, the bush is transferred to a warm and well-lit place. Inspect and trim the bush.
The bush needs to be replanted carefully, using the transshipment method for this, make sure that the earthen lump on the roots does not collapse. Try not to damage the root system. Fill the voids in the new pot with the same soil mixture that was used to plant the bush last year. If you use a completely different composition of soil for this, this can lead to a lack of flowering. The substrate should be used slightly acidic or neutral. You should not forget about this, therefore it is best to constantly use the same soil mixture, for example, for flowering geraniums.
It may happen that you have to transplant the cataractus not 1, but 2 times a year. If during a period of intensive growth, flowers fly around and yellowing of the lower leaf plates is observed, then most likely the roots are already very crowded in the pot. Look at the holes on the bottom of the container, if the roots are cramped, they will look out of them. In this case, the plant must be transplanted extremely urgently, while taking a larger flower pot. To make the bush easier to pull out, it is watered before transplanting. If the container is made of plastic, then most likely it will have to be broken or cut, but be extremely careful not to harm the root system. Otherwise, flowering will stop.
Katarantus is room. Beneficial features.
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With good and proper care, the cataractus will bloom profusely and retain its decorative effect for a long time. Experts do not recommend growing one bush for longer than 3 years. The fact is that in a bush older than three years there is an overgrowth: the stems become clumsy, and the flowers become smaller. As a result of this, the bush loses its decorative effect. That is why after the plant reaches three years of age, it is replaced with a new one.
After the lush bloom is over, the bush weakens greatly and it will take a lot of effort on the part of the grower to bloom again next season. That is why most often this plant is grown as an annual. When the bush fades, they simply throw it away. The fact is that it is much easier to root a stalk or stem than to take care of a bush in winter. The new bush will grow stronger by spring, grow up and will be ready to please you with its spectacular flowering. To propagate such a plant, 3 methods are used: the seed method, dividing the bush and cuttings.
You can buy seed material of such a plant in a specialized store. Own seeds from their bush are not collected, as they do not have time to ripen during the growing season. They are able to mature only in vivo in nature. If you still decide to collect the seed from your bush, then you have to wait quite a while. Katarantus will have to be grown during the autumn-winter period, while providing him with the most favorable conditions similar to natural ones: humidity and air temperature should be optimal and constant, and also a large amount of light will be required. Only in early spring is it possible that seed material will ripen.
Sowing seeds can be carried out at any time of the year. However, remember that a young bush will begin to bloom only 2-3 months after emergence. In this regard, it is much more practical and more convenient to sow in early spring. To begin with, the seed material is subjected to a solution of potassium permanganate, and then it is treated with epin. For sowing, a small container is used, which is filled with fertile soil mixture, while the seeds should be buried no more than 10 mm. Pour the crops, for this they are moistened from the spray bottle with well-settled water, the temperature of which should be slightly higher than room temperature. The container with crops on top must be closed. For sowing, any not very large capacity is suitable, which should be covered with a film or glass on top. Crops are cleaned in a warm and dark place. The first seedlings can be seen in 7-15 days. After this, the container should be transferred to a bright place. The optimum air temperature is 23–26 degrees. Do not forget to regularly air the crops: 1 time per day, morning time is best for this. After the seedlings appear, they do not grow for 30 days, at this time they build up the root system. Picking on individual pots is carried out after 3 or 4 real leaf plates grow on the bushes. Remember that strong seedlings grow very quickly, so a large pot is used to plant them. In this case, you will not have to replant the overgrown flowering bush.
For planting a young plant should use a suitable soil mixture. A substrate consisting of humus, coarse sand, peat and soddy soil (1: 1: 1: 1) is well suited for this. When buying a ready-made soil mix, choose the one that is suitable for flowering indoor plants.
Propagation by cuttings
First you need to harvest the cuttings, for this cut off the upper parts of the stems, which should be green. You can root the cuttings in a soil mixture or a vessel with water. Water should be boiled or well settled, while a drug stimulating root growth should be dissolved in it. The container with the handle is placed in a well-lit and warm place. If necessary, add water to the glass, the roots of the stalk should appear fairly quickly. At the end of rooting, the stalk is planted in a suitable substrate. A young bush is looked after in the same way as an adult.
For rooting, cuttings can be planted in a moist soil mixture, but they must be covered with a transparent cap on top. Cuttings are watered only if necessary, but they need to be ventilated regularly. After the stalk starts to grow, the shelter can be removed. Remember that during rooting the stalk can die, so they are harvested at once several pieces. Harvesting and rooting of cuttings is recommended in the early spring after the adult bush is trimmed. However, cataranthus can be propagated in this way in the fall. Best of all, cuttings root at a temperature of 22 to 25 degrees.
🌱Unique Katarantus! Easy to breed with cuttings! So simple 🌱
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During the transplantation of an adult overgrown bush in spring, it can be divided into several parts.Depending on the size of the root system, the bush can be divided into 2-3 parts. Remove the plant from the container and carefully remove the entire substrate from its root system. Inspect the roots and divide the bush into a certain number of parts using a sterilized, very sharp instrument. Place the cuts must be sprinkled with coal powder. Each bush is planted in an individual container, observing all the rules listed above.
If in the summer you transplant a room catharanthus into the open ground, then you should immediately think about how you will save the plant in the cold season. The fact is that even a mild winter, this flower can not survive. In the early days of October, the bush must be carefully removed from the ground, shortening its stems by 2/3 of the length. Put the bush in a container where its entire root system can fit. Next, you need to fill the pot to the top with a soil mixture consisting of earth and sand. After that, the flower is transferred to a room where the temperature is kept at a level of 15 to 17 degrees. In this case, it will be better if you find such a place in the apartment. He will have to stand there before the onset of heat. In winter, you do not need to water the plant. After the spring air temperature rises to 18 degrees and above, the bush can again be landed on the street.
If something is wrong with the quarantine, then you can understand it by its appearance. It will necessarily signal you with its appearance in the event that you take care of it incorrectly. Therefore, carefully monitor the condition of the plant, which will allow you to timely correct all existing errors in care and save the flower.
- It happens that small spots or dark tubercles form on the front surface of the leaf plates. At the same time, something resembling pustules appears on the wrong surface. Such symptoms indicate that your catarhus is sick with leaf rust. Most often, the development of such a disease contributes to increased humidity, as well as regular waterlogging of the soil. And it happens that a plant is planted in a substrate that is infected with rust fungi or it is excessively heavy. In order to save the flower, it is treated with fungicidal preparations. After treatment, the bush is recommended to be transplanted into fresh soil mixture.
- It also happens that foliage becomes lethargic, turns yellow and flies around. This can happen if the bush stands on the window, and at the same time it is not protected from the scorching rays of the sun. In this case, the plant must be moved deeper into the room, or instead it can be protected from the sun in the form of a light curtain or blinds.
- If there is excessively dry air in the room, then the tops of the leaf plates begin to turn yellow. Especially often, such a problem appears in the winter, as the air in this period is overdried by the working heating devices. In this case, take a high pallet and fill it with wet expanded clay, and also rearrange the flower away from heating appliances. And even near it you can put an open vessel filled with water. If the bush has already faded, then its foliage can be moistened from the spray, using well-settled water for this purpose, the temperature of which should be close to room temperature. As a result of these actions, the level of air humidity will increase, and the plant will return to normal.
- It often happens that the lower leaf plates on the bush turn yellow and fly around. This is a completely natural process for this plant. Break off all yellow leaves in time, and the bush will always look neat and beautiful.
- Poor flowering may be due to the fact that the room has an excessively low air temperature. Move the catharanthus to a well-lit and warm place, and you will be able to solve this problem.
- Flowering stops and the leaves turn yellow. Inspect the pot: if the roots stick out of its drainage holes at the bottom, this means that the bush is very cramped in the old tank and needs a change to a new, more spacious one. After a little time, the bush will bounce back and bloom again.
- But buds near the catharanthus can fly around for various reasons: dry air, poor watering or insufficient light. If watering is too rare, then due to a lack of moisture near the bush, young foliage will begin to fall from the upper parts of the stems. It can also be due to the fact that he is cold or dark.
On such a plant, scabies, aphids and spider mites most often settle. They can get onto your flower by moving from their neighbors through an open window from the street, or you can bring them yourself from the flower shop. In this regard, all flowers must be systematically examined.
If pests were found on the bush, then the first thing he needs to do is to arrange a warm shower, which will wash off most of the individuals. After that, with a brush moistened in alcohol, try to remove those pests that remain. Then treat the foliage with a soap solution. If there are a lot of pests, then treat the bush with a solution of an insecticide (Actellica, Actara or Fitoverm). You need to spray the bush twice or thrice with a break of 1-1.5 weeks. Before using the product, read the instructions on the package.
Types and varieties of Catharanthus
All hybrids, as well as the decorative series of varieties of catharanthus, were created by breeders using pink catharanthus. These plants differ in color of flowers and the height of the bush. Below, those that are most popular will be described.
In height, such a plant reaches about half a meter. In diameter, rather large flowers reach about 50 mm. They can be painted in various color shades from dark red to snow-white. As a rule, in the center of the flower there is an eye of a contrasting color. Such a catharanthus is cultivated both at home and in the garden, decorating them with curbs of paths and flower beds.
The height of a small compact bush varies from 25 to 30 centimeters, while its crown in diameter can reach from 15 to 20 centimeters. This plant is undemanding in care and it is characterized by early flowering. Large flowers are decorated in the center with the eye characteristic of the cataractus, which stands out from the petals. This variety has several varieties that differ in the color of the flowers:
- Burgundy - the flowers are painted in a bright wine tint and have a white eye;
- White - white flowers are decorated with a red eye;
- Apricot - the apricot hue of the flowers has a red center;
- Ice pink - pinkish flowers have a red middle.
In the eighties of the twentieth century, breeders created a fairly large number of new varieties of Catharanthus. Today, the following are popular:
Sortoseriya Cooler (Culer)
Its composition includes low plants, characterized by strong branching, their height does not exceed 0.4 m. Large rounded flowers in diameter reach up to 50 mm. In the middle they have an eye of contrasting bright color. This series includes the following grades:
- Grape Cooler - lavender-pink flowers have red eyes;
- Peppermint Cooler - white flowers adorn the eyes in deep red;
- Red Cooler - flowers of a red shade.
Sortoseriya First Kiss (First Kiss, First Kiss)
The height of compact bushes varies from 0.3 to 0.4 m, the crown is quite spectacular, and the flowers can be painted in 13 different shades. This variety is the most titled and is most popular with flower growers. The fact is that during the competitions of flower growers in North America, representatives of this variety variety received prestigious awards. For example, the violet-blue cultivar First Kiss Blueberry has been honored with high awards in Canada and the United States.
The composition of this sortoseriya includes ampelic catharanthus. Low bushes reach a height of only about 15 centimeters. Their long stems are distinguished by their flexibility, and they either hang down or spread along the ground. In diameter, large flowers reach about 50 mm. The following varieties are most popular:
- Katarantus ampel Titan - the length of the lashes hanging down is about 0.75 m, against the background of dark green shiny foliage, saturated red flowers stand out brightly, most often the variety is cultivated in a cache-pot;
- Katarantus Titan White - has snowy white flowers;
- Deep rose - pink flowers;
- Bark Cascade Cherry - color of cherry flowers;
- Bark Cascade Shelf Dot - The bush is decorated with white flowers;
- Bark Cascade of Medzhent - the flowers are painted in a burgundy-lilac shade.
KATARANTUS- FLOWER FOR KLUBS AND HOUSES
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