Sorrel: planting and care in the open ground, growing from seeds
Sorrel (Rumex) is a shrub or herb that is annual or perennial; it is a member of the Buckwheat family. This genus has a Russian name derived from the Pre-Slavic language, while it has the same root with the word "cabbage soup". At home, this culture is called sour, sour, sour, sour, sour, sour, and sour. Representatives of this genus can be met on various continents where there are at least some plants, but the main areola of this culture covers the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, namely: forest edges, ravine slopes, shores of swamps, lakes, rivers and meadows. Another sorrel grows like weed grass near a person’s home, while it is unpretentious to the composition of the soil. This genus unites more than 150 species, however, the most popular species is sour or ordinary sorrel.
Sorrel is a herbaceous dioecious plant with a branched, short, short root. The upright ribbed stem has a meter high, while at the base it is painted in dark purple. At the top of the stem there is a paniculate inflorescence. Whole acid basal leaf plates are long-grained and reach a length of 15 to 20 centimeters. The shape of the base is arrow-shaped, while the median vein is pronounced. Almost sessile, regularly located stem leaf plates have an ovoid-oblong shape and an arrow-shaped base. Polygamous cylindrical panicle inflorescences consist of pink or pale red flowers. Female and male flowers differ in structure. Flowering is observed in June and July. The fruit is a pointed, smooth achene of brownish-black color, they reach 1.7 cm in length and have sharp ribs and convex faces.
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Outdoor sorrel cultivation
At the same place, sorrel can be cultivated for 3-4 years, if transplantation is not done on time, this will negatively affect the quality and productivity of this plant. For sowing, we select areas free of weed grass, with moistened nutrient soil, while stagnation of water should not be observed on them. The occurrence of groundwater in the area should be deep enough (at least 100 cm). Sorrel grows best in areas with slightly acidic loam or sandy loam, which are saturated with humus. Well-drained peat soil is also suitable for growing such a crop.
The landing site should be prepared in the fall, for this purpose it is digged to the depth of the shovel bayonet, while 20-30 grams of potassium chloride, 6-8 kilograms of compost or humus and 30-40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter are brought into the soil . At the beginning of the spring period, urea needs to be embedded in the ground (20 grams per 1 square meter of land), a rake is used for this. Sowing this culture can be carried out three times during the season, namely, in the beginning of spring, in the summer and in the fall before winter.
In spring, sorrel should be sown immediately after soil cultivation, and it will be possible to harvest the first crop already this year. In the summer, sowing of seeds should be carried out in June-July when the harvest of lettuce, radish and green onions will be carried out. Seedlings that appeared after summer sowing will get stronger before the frosts begin, and with the coming of next spring sorrel will give a rich harvest. This culture is sown before winter in October or November. The plants appearing in the next season will yield in spring.
Most often, gardeners sow sorrel in the spring, the fact is that at this time there is a lot of moisture in the soil, while shoots appear and grow together. Bushes that appeared after summer sowing need systematic watering. When sowing seeds in the winter, very often seedlings appear shortly before the onset of frost, in the end they die. For sorrel sowing, beds are used that reach a width of 100 cm and a height of 12 cm. Rows must be made across the length, while the distance between them should be about 25 centimeters. Seeds are buried in the soil by 10–20 mm, then its surface is tamped, and the crops are watered.
Care for the sorrel in the garden
It is very simple to care for the sorrel grown in open soil, while the surface of the row-spacings should be systematically loosened, and the bushes should be watered, weeded, fed in a timely manner, and also protected from harmful insects and diseases.
It is necessary to water the sorrel on time, but if the bushes suffer due to lack of water, this will provoke an excessively early formation of peduncles, which is extremely negative for the crop. Peduncles after their appearance must be cut off. After the rain passes or the bushes are watered, the surface between the rows should be loosened and weed must be removed. The surface of the beds is covered with a layer of mulch (organic material), making it much easier to take care of the bushes.
You need to feed the bushes twice or thrice during the season. To do this, use a solution of mullein (1: 6), and in 10 liters of such a nutrient mixture add 15 grams of potassium and the same amount of phosphorus fertilizer. In the second year, this culture will need to be fed with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer, while 1 square meter of the plot takes from 15 to 20 grams of urea, from 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate and from 15 to 20 grams of potassium chloride. You need to feed the bushes with nitrogen-containing fertilizer every time after the leaves are trimmed, while on a fine day it is introduced in the form of a solution.
Harvesting is carried out after 4 or 5 leaf blades of normal size grow on each bush. Before harvesting, weeds must be removed from the beds. When the foliage is cut, the row-spacing surface must be loosened with a chopper. Trimming leaf plates is necessary at a height of 30–40 mm from the surface of the site, while you must try not to injure the apical kidneys. From May to July, sorrel can be harvested 3 times. The last time the harvest is carried out no later than 30 days before the freezing occurs, otherwise it will have an extremely negative impact on the future harvest. In autumn, the surface between the rows should be covered with compost or humus (per 1 square meter 4-5 kilograms), while the exposed roots must be sprinkled with them.
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Pests and diseases of sorrel with photos and names
Sorrel diseases and their treatment
In the first year of growth, the bushes may be affected by downy mildew (peronosporosis). In diseased bushes, the foliage becomes wrinkled, brittle and thickened, while its edge turns down. Most actively, this disease develops in wet weather. In order to prevent, weed must be removed from the site in time, while it is necessary to cut off sick leaf plates in time. Ill bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture.
The development of gray rot occurs due to thickening of plantings at high humidity. On sick bushes, maroon spots are formed, gradually becoming watery and lethargic. Then begins the decay of the foliage. In order to prevent, do not allow thickening of plantings, while the surface of the beds must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
Rust in temperate climates is quite common. In diseased bushes on the surface, bubbles of a pale yellow color form, over time they burst, and spores of the fungus spill out of them. For the purpose of prevention in the autumn, the site must be cleaned of plant debris, and then digging the soil. And in springtime, the surface of the beds is covered with a layer of mulch (peat, sawdust or humus).
Various spotting (septoria, ovulariosis and others) is very difficult to distinguish among themselves. But if the bush gets any of the spots, then spots of various colors, shapes and shapes will form on its surface. In this regard, as soon as spots appear on the foliage, it should be cut and burned. For prophylactic purposes, in autumn, plant debris must be removed from the surface of the site, and then the soil surface is covered with a layer of mulch (humus).
Sorrel pests and their control
Most often, pests are harmed by sorrel, such as aphids, leaf beetles, sorrel sawflies, winter scoops and wireworms.
The aphid settles on the bush and sucks out the juice from it, due to which the leaf plates become yellow lethargic, the roots weaken, and the plants die. In order to get rid of such a harmful insect, you need to use infusions of garlic, wood ash, burdock and tomato tops, while a small amount of liquid soap is poured into them.
If frequent holes appear on the surface of the foliage, then this indicates that leaf beetles settled on the bush. Another such pest on the underside of the sheet plates arranges oviposition. In order to prevent the appearance of such a pest on the bushes, it is necessary to plant a feverfew in the rows of sorrel. From such a flower, you can still make an infusion, which is treated with bushes twice or thrice during the season.
Sawers on sorrel bushes also lay their eggs, while the green caterpillars that have appeared nibble on the foliage, after which only the skeleton of the veins remains from it. For prevention purposes, weed must be removed from the site on time. You also need to clean the area of plant residues in a timely manner, and treat the bushes with the infusion of pharmacy chamomile, in which liquid soap should be poured.
In the garden, a winter scoop can settle in the last spring weeks, however, such an insect can cause great harm to the sorrel. Throughout the summer period, it eats the foliage of the plant, and with the onset of autumn, such a pest moves closer to the surface of the soil. In order to prevent, an autumn digging of the site is mandatory.
To catch butterfly scoop in several places on the site, you need to set traps, for this, at a meter height, containers filled with fermented liquid are suspended, for example: compote, honey water or molasses.
The wireworm is the larva of a nutcracker bug, it injures both the root system of the plant and its foliage. For prevention purposes, all weed grass must be removed from the site in a timely manner, excessively acidic soil must be neutralized, after harvesting, the site should be digged, and it should also be remembered that this crop is not recommended to be grown in the same place for more than 4 years.
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Types and varieties of sorrel
It has already been said above that the most popular type of sorrel among gardeners is sorrel, or ordinary. Also in the gardens, such species are cultivated as: passerine sorrel (small, sorrel), water (aquatic), horse (dense, horse sorrel, red moth), curly, seaside, blunt, spinach and Russian. As a medicinal plant, horse sorrel is most often grown.
Horse sorrel (Rumex confertus)
Such a herbaceous perennial plant has a weakly branched, thick and short rhizome, which has many subordinate roots. Furrowed, bare, erect, lone stems branch at the top, their height can vary from 0.9 to 1.5 m, in thickness they reach 20 mm. Regularly located lower stem and rosette leaf plates have a heart-shaped base, and their shape is elongated-triangular-ovate. The leaves in the upper part are dull, and their edge is wavy, they reach 25 centimeters in length and 13 centimeters in width, their petioles are long and grooved along the upper side. The upper stem short-leaflets, unlike the lower ones, are sharper and shorter, they have a lanceolate-ovoid shape. The wrong surface of the leaf plates has a dense pubescence represented by a hard short pile. The greatest amount of pubescence is located on the leaf veins. Greens of this kind have a non-acidic taste. Not very large whorls consist of bisexual yellow-green flowers. Such whorls form a thyrsus, which is a lush long and narrow paniculate inflorescence. This species blooms in May – June. The fruit is a brown nut, reaching a length of about 0.7 cm and having a triangular oval shape. In nature, this species is found in the forest-steppe and steppe zone, while it prefers to grow on moderately moist and moist soil, it is considered a typical meadow weed grass.
Common sorrel, or sour
A detailed description of this species is at the beginning of the article. The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Broadleaf. This perennial is resistant to frost and has a high yield; it ripens in just 40–45 days. It is eaten fresh, and also used for the preparation of winter blanks. Long-leaf green leaf plates have an elongated oval shape.
- Malachite. The ripening period of such a medium early variety is from 40 to 45 days. Bright green foliage has a smooth or bubbly surface and a wavy edge, in length it reaches about 15 centimeters. The upright socket is loose.
- Spinach. The mid-early variety is resistant to frost and disease. A loose and large outlet consists of large sheet plates of a bright dark green color, the surface of which is bubbly.
- Large leaf. This early variety is resistant to frost and shooting. A standing rosette consists of delicate greenish foliage. In length, leaf plates can reach 20 centimeters and even more. Such a variety matures in 30–45 days.
- Bloody Mary. This decorative variety is frost-resistant, it is widely used in cooking. The variety was so named due to the fact that on the surface of green foliage there are blotches of red. The length of the leaves is 15 centimeters, and their width is 10 centimeters. Ripening time is 45-50 days.
- Odessa 17. Such an early high-yielding variety has dark green elongated leaf plates, their length is 16 centimeters, and their width is 7 centimeters, they are part of an upright loose socket. This plant is used for the preparation of soups, salads, as well as for preservation.
- Nikolsky. The medium ripening variety is notable for its productivity. The raised loose socket consists of green colored leaf plates having a length of about 38 centimeters and a width of up to 12 centimeters. It is used in food fresh, and is also used in the preparation of winter preparations.
- Sanguine. This medium-term perennial is characterized by its productivity. The semi-raised erect socket is quite high, the stem is pale red. Large oval-oblong leaf plates of green color have a slightly bubbly or smooth surface, as well as red veins.
- Emerald king. Early variety with high yield.Smooth delicate greenish leaf plates have an elongated oval shape.
- Champion. Such a perennial has a decorative effect, high taste and is high yielding. The height of the upright outlet is about 0.4 m, and in diameter it reaches up to 0.3 m. It consists of juicy green large leafy plates, the shape of which is oval-elongated.
- Emerald snow. The medium ripening variety is distinguished by excellent taste and high yield. The spreading raised socket includes medium-sized, slightly bubbled, saturated green leaf plates.
- Maykopsky 10. This early variety is very popular among gardeners, it is resistant to diseases and frost, and has good yield. The plant contains a moderate amount of acid. Fleshy large leaf plates are painted in yellowish-green color, the length of the thick petioles is medium.
- Altaic. Such a frost-resistant variety has a spear-shaped, medium-acid taste foliage; its petioles are long and thin. Young foliage is painted in dark green color, after a while she has a reddish tint.
- Lyon. The variety has high quality and excellent taste. On thick petioles are fleshy leaf plates. After the greens are cut, it grows very quickly. This variety is not resistant to frost and can freeze in the winter.
- Red veins. The height of this decorative variety is about 0.4 m. The upright compact rosette consists of green leaf-shaped lamellar plates, while the veins in them are burgundy red. In this variety, only young leaf plates are eaten before they are roughened.
Properties of sorrel: benefit and harm
The healing properties of sorrel
Gardeners appreciate sorrel because it gives greens in the spring, when there is a particularly acute shortage of vitamins, and there are still too few fresh vegetables. The green part of plants includes proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids, fiber, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), E (tocopherol), A (beta-carotene), K (phylloquinone), H (biotin), PP (niacin) and vitamins Group B: thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic and folic acid, pyridoxine. Also, this culture is considered a source of potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, fluorine, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and iodine. Rhizomes of horse sorrel contain vitamin K, essential oil, resins, iron, tannins, flavonoids, organic acids, for example, coffee and oxalic, as well as other substances that the human body needs. Horse sorrel is very similar in composition to such a very useful plant as rhubarb.
Young foliage of such a culture is most nutritious and beneficial, with citric and malic acid in their composition. Sorrel sorrel foliage is characterized by analgesic, anti-inflammatory, fixing, wound healing, anti-zingotic and anti-toxic effects, and it also helps to improve digestion. With an upset stomach, a decoction of foliage is used. This drink is characterized by antiallergic and choleretic action, improves liver function, and also eliminates skin itching and acne.
This plant is used for painful menstruation and during menopause. For this, 1 tbsp. freshly boiled water should be combined with 1 large spoon of dry foliage. The drink should be infused for 60 minutes, after which it is drunk three times a day for a third of a glass for 30 minutes. before the meal.
With infertility, the following composition helps: 1 tbsp. freshly boiled water must be combined with 1 large spoon of sorrel, the mixture is boiled for 60 s, and then it is removed from the heat and allowed to cool completely. They drink the drug in the same way as with painful periods. To increase the effectiveness of the drink, it is necessary to pour knotweed or mummy into it.
A decoction of foliage of common sorrel is used to improve liver function, stimulate the formation of bile, and it can also stop bleeding. Funds made on the basis of horse sorrel rhizome are used for liver diseases, uterine and pulmonary hemorrhages, hemorrhoids, constipation, anal fissures, and also externally for burns, gingivitis, stomatitis, wounds and skin diseases. In alternative medicine, such a sorrel is used as an antitumor agent. A decoction is prepared from the leaves of horse sorrel, which helps with colds, diarrhea, colitis, entero- and hemocolitis.
Sorrel - useful properties and contraindications
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Experts do not recommend eating sorrel too much or for a long time since it contains a lot of oxalic acid, and it can contribute to disruption of the kidneys and mineral metabolism in the body. Also, this plant can not be eaten with stomach and duodenal ulcers, kidney diseases, gastritis with high acidity, gout and pregnant women.