Leafworm: how to fight, drugs, folk remedies
Leafworm (Tortricidae or Olethreutidae) is a representative of the butterfly family, which unites more than 1000 genera and about 10 thousand species. You can meet it in any part of the globe, but most of the species are found in the tropical forests of Asia.
Butterfly leaflet looks similar to a moth or moth. The wingspan does not exceed 25 mm. As a rule, her body is thick and has a dense coating consisting of hairs. The wings fold horizontally on the back. The length of almost bare caterpillars of these butterflies varies from 10 to 20 mm; they have 16 legs, a head of brown or black color and a pale green or light yellow body. The caterpillars have a belt on the belly rings on which the hooks are located. Caterpillars, and not adult butterflies, cause damage to plants.
In a rather large family of leaf moths, only a couple of genera are best isolated: namely, they are devouring shoots and buds of coniferous plants and codling moths - they harm garden shrubs and trees. All other pests belonging to this family damage almost all parts of different cultures, both aboveground and underground (roots). Below it will be described in detail about the leaf moths of the moths.
The leaf worm is capable of very much harm garden shrubs and trees, it damages the foliage of plants. Caterpillars hide in the leaves and wrap them in tubes or bunches, while they pull them together with a web. Since there are a huge number of different types of leaflets that have a lot of differences between each other, each section will describe a specific type of leaflet that can harm a particular garden shrub or tree.
Fighting a leaflet in the garden
There are three ways to deal with a leaflet: chemical, mechanical and biological. Thanks to the mechanical methods of control, it is possible to destroy the tracks of this pest or create an obstacle that will protect the site from whiteflies. Such methods include: cutting and burning foliage with a folded pest, and also shaking off the caterpillars from the plant. Also, in order to get rid of a harmful insect mechanically, you can use trapping belts and various traps, which are designed not only to collect, but also to destroy leaflets. Such devices do not cause any harm to animals or humans, and they do not pollute nature.
Biological methods of combating such an insect involve the use of its natural enemies. More precisely, it is recommended to attract birds to the site. The main enemy of the leaflet is the tit. It destroys both adult butterflies and caterpillars. In order to not only attract it to the site, but also to keep it on it, from autumn on trees it is recommended to hang feeders in which unroasted seeds and unsalted lard are placed.
The most effective are chemical methods of pest control, with which you can exterminate both butterflies and their caterpillars. But in this case, one must take into account that such a pest can adapt to toxins very quickly, in connection with this, the drugs used for processing should be regularly replaced or alternated. In addition, the toxins that make up the chemicals during spraying the plants are on the surface of the fruit, and if a person eats them, they can harm his body. In this regard, experts advise that chemical preparations should be used only when the number of leafworms is higher than the hazard threshold: if, when examining one branch, 5 or more caterpillars were found on it, this means that the plant must be sprayed with a special insecticidal preparation.
It is necessary to deal with the leaflet not only on those plants on which it was seen. All trees and shrubs should be treated, because the larvae of such an insect can easily move to another plant by simply slipping out of folded foliage. In addition, we must not forget about preventive measures that will help protect the garden from the appearance of this pest. To start the fight against pests in a timely manner, you need to inspect garden crops every day. The fact is that while there are few pests, getting rid of them is much easier.
An adult butterfly is much more difficult to destroy than a caterpillar of a leafworm. About what tools are recommended to be used for processing a specific culture from leafworms will be described in detail in other sections of this article. However, it should be noted that if the caterpillars managed to wrap themselves in foliage, then even the most powerful insecticide will not be able to destroy them. Therefore, such folded leaves with a pest are cut and burned.
How to deal with leaflet folk and traditional ways
Watch this video on YouTube
All insecticidal drugs used to combat leaflet are divided into contact and systemic. Contact agents are less toxic, but they also differ in not too high efficiency. Systemic insecticides are more effective, but they are also relatively more expensive.
For prevention purposes, as well as in the event that few pests are found in the garden, the following chemicals are most often used:
- Alatar. This is a universal insecticide. To prepare a working solution, which is used to spray garden shrubs and trees, combine one bucket of water and 3-5 milligrams of the drug.
- Karbofos, or Fufanon Is a broad-spectrum insecticidal drug. The solution is prepared as follows: 1 liter of water is combined with 1 milligram of the drug, and in special cases the amount of insecticide is increased to two milligrams.
- Dursban. Dissolve from 10 to 20 milligrams of this insectoacaricidal agent in one bucket of water.
- Atom, Landing, Ditox and Binom. All of these drugs are broad-spectrum insecticides. A solution is prepared for processing, for this, 1 liter of water is combined with 1 ml of the product.
- Aktara. Such a broad-spectrum insecticidal agent is also used in the fight against leafworm. To spray the bushes, prepare a solution - 8 milligrams of the drug is taken per bucket of water.
- Actellic. Enteric-acaricidal preparation of intestinal contact action. 1 ml of the drug is taken per 1 liter of water.
Biologically active agents such as: Dendrobacillin, Lepidocide and Bitoxibacillin also destroy caterpillars quite effectively.
It is quite difficult to get rid of the leaflet, in connection with this you will have to spray the plants several times with a break of 1-1.5 weeks.
In the case when there are a large number of pests on garden crops, then it is recommended to use more powerful tools to combat them. The larvae hidden in the leaves are exterminated by synthetic pyrethroids, for example: Aivengo, Alfacin, Fatrin, Fastak and Accord. When using these funds, you must strictly follow the instructions (see the packaging), while the air temperature should not exceed 23 degrees, if it is hotter, then the drugs will not work. Remember that pyrethroids are very toxic to humans, therefore, experts advise them to be used only when other methods have been found to be ineffective. You can also quickly get rid of the pest using pesticides, for example: Inta-Vir, Rovikurt, Fury and Kinmiks. However, these funds are also very dangerous for humans.
If there are not too many pests on trees and bushes, then you can try to exterminate them with the help of folk remedies.There are several folk remedies that are quite effective in combating leafworm, but are absolutely safe for both humans and animals. For instance:
- Wormwood broth. To prepare it, you will need to combine 10 liters of water with 0.7–0.8 kg of dry wormwood or with ½ part of a bucket of chopped fresh grass. The mixture should be infused for two days, after which it is boiled for 30 minutes over low heat. Bring the volume of the cooled and strained product to 10 liters. Before processing, the product is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1.
- Tobacco infusion. In a bucket of hot water add half a kilogram of shag or tobacco dust. The infusion will be ready in 2 days, it is filtered with gauze and squeezed. The product is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1. Before processing, in each bucket of the finished product, 40 g of soap crushed on a grater are dissolved (you can take liquid soap). This infusion is toxic to humans, in this regard, during processing, do not forget about precautions.
- Broth tops tomato. A bucket of water is combined with four kilograms of finely chopped roots and fresh green tops of tomato, and the mixture is infused for three to four hours. Then it is boiled for half an hour on low heat, when the product has cooled, it is filtered, and the plant residues must be squeezed out. In tightly closed glass bottles, you can store the broth for 12 months, but only in a cool place. Before use, the broth is diluted with water (1: 1), while in every 10 liters of the finished solution, 40 grams of crushed soap is put.
- Potato tops infusion. A bucket of warm water is combined with four kilograms of fresh potato tops (dry tops are taken 2 times less). The infusion will be ready after 3 or 4 hours. When it is filtered, they put 40 grams of soap in it.
These folk remedies fight the caterpillars quite well if the bushes and trees are sprayed with them shortly before they bloom and at the end of flowering. To get rid of adult leafworms (butterflies), you need a solution of molasses, which began to ferment jam, dried fruit compote or bread kvass. Fill them with a glass jar of 1 liter per 1/3 part, then hang it in the evening on a tree at least one and a half meters high. There, the "trap" should stay the night. In the morning, remove the jar, as not only pests, but also beneficial insects can get into it, and adult leaflets do not fly in the daytime, but hide on tree branches and trunks.
liquid ammonia super remedy against bunch of leaves and pests of grapes lehtiä grozdevoy
Watch this video on YouTube
As a rule, completely healthy and strong plants pests bypass. And first of all, leafworms settle on cultures weakened by the disease or inappropriate care. Remember the agrotechnical rules of crops, and also provide them with timely care, for this you need to weed, water, trim, and feed the plants on time. Make sure that the crowns of plants are not overly thickened, and also that there is a sufficient amount of nutrients and moisture in the soil, but remember that both their lack and excess can harm both bushes and trees. If the near-trunk circle is overgrown with grass, then this increases the likelihood of a leafworm. Make sure that the soil in the trunk circle is always loose.
In order to prevent the spread of caterpillars of the leafy leaf in the garden, it is necessary to remove flying leaves and fruits from under the plants every day, especially if the moth has settled on them. Barks are cleaned in early spring trees, dead parts are removed, then the surface of the stem is covered with milk of lime on top, which is mixed with chalk solution or copper sulfate, and Karbofos (2%) is added to it.Try to prevent trees from freezing and causing mechanical damage.
In order to prevent leaflets from appearing on the garden plot, experts advise systematically to conduct preventive treatments. For the first time in a season, plants are treated in early spring immediately after the skeletal branches and tree branches are cleaned and whitened. Processing is carried out before the sap flow begins, while the air temperature should not be lower than 10 degrees, if it is colder outside, then the larvae will hide under the bark, and the drug used for spraying will not be able to act on them.
In order to prevent plants are treated with such means as Kinmiks or Decis, while do not forget to follow the instructions. These funds are also used for subsequent treatments, which are carried out shortly before the plants bloom and immediately after flowering. During the growth of fruits, fruit shrubs and trees are also sprayed for prevention, for this you can use Karbofos, Iskra, Kinmiks, Fury, Kemifos, Citkor or Decis. After this, the crops are no longer sprayed with chemicals, however, you still need to regularly clean the flying fruits and leaves, pick foliage folded with a leaflet from the plants, and hang traps regularly and use trapping belts to tie the trees. When leaf fall ends, clear the garden area of foliage and loosen the soil in tree-trunk circles. Then shrubs and trees, as well as the surface of the earth under them, are sprayed with copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.
Apple tree leaflet
On the apple tree, several types of leaflets can live:
- Kidney leaflet, or werewolf. The front wings of such a butterfly have a whitish-yellow color. The basal field has a brownish-gray color with a bluish tint, and almost near the upper edge there is a large mirror, which is surrounded by a pair of glossy stripes of a lead-gray hue.
- Grape leaf. The front wings of the insect are painted brown and they have a pattern consisting of transverse stripes of a light shade, which is diluted with pale blue and yellow spots.
- Eastern Codling Moth. On the wings of a dark brown hue along the front edge are white dashes. On the upper part of the wings there is a velvety black border. The color of the hind wings is paler, brownish-gray.
- Hawthorn leaflet. In males of such a moth, the front wings are pale yellow, and in females - brownish-gray. The wings are decorated with a pattern, in males it is light brown and blurry, and in females it is darker. The color of the hind wings is paler, while the females have a light-red coating on their surface.
- Apple leaf moth or apple moth. A gray night butterfly, the wingspan of which can vary from one and a half to two centimeters. The length of the pinkish caterpillar is about 1.8 cm; its head is brown. Brownish-yellow pupa in length reaches from 0.9 to 1.2 cm.
In addition to these species, plum, oak and pear moths, currant and fruit leaf moths sometimes also settle on the apple tree (a description of them can be found below). Caterpillars of such an insect damage the foliage, buds and fruits of this crop.
They are struggling with a leaflet that has settled on an apple tree in various ways, while preventive measures should not be neglected. From spring to the beginning of the active growth of apple fruits, it is recommended to spray with chemical agents, later they use folk remedies less dangerous for humans, and still do not forget about mechanical methods of controlling the pest.
At the beginning of the season, in early spring, when it will be no colder than 10 degrees outside, spray the tree with Decis solution (per milligram per liter of water) or Profilactin (500 ml per bucket of water). For one adult plant, no more than half a bucket of solution is taken. In the future, you will need 2 more sprayings by means of similar action (Desant, Karbofos, Tod, Ditoks, etc.), they are carried out shortly before flowering and immediately after its completion. All folded folded into a lump or tube must be torn off, but do not let the caterpillar run away. It is recommended that this foliage be destroyed by fire, while gloves should be used. In the middle of summer after the caterpillars hide, it will be very difficult to destroy them using chemicals. At this time, the apple tree and the soil surface under it are sprayed with pyrethroids, for example: Alfacin, Aivengo, Chord, Altyn, Fatrin or Fastak. The tree should be treated with these means only when the air temperature outside is no more than 23 degrees.
When the fruits are just starting to gain mass, spraying the apple tree with pesticides needs to be stopped. After this, the plant can be saved from leafworms only by mechanical and biological methods, for example, traps and trapping belts can be used. Timely clean the surface of the soil under the tree from flying fruits and foliage. If there is such a need, then spray the plant with one of the folk remedies.
APPLE SHEET. Harm and methods of struggle.
Watch this video on YouTube
The following types of leaf moths can live on a pear tree: apple, plum, pear, oriental, bunch, frost, rose, hawthorn and oak moths.
- Pear leaf moth (codling moth). The front wings of this butterfly are dark gray in color, they are decorated with wavy transverse stripes. On the front wings on the upper edge there is a speck of brownish-brown color. The color of the hind wings is grayish-brown. A line of dark color runs at the base of the gray fringe.
- Oak leaflet or green leaflet. The abdomen of the butterfly is gray, and the head is pale yellow. The wings can be yellowish green or light yellow with blurry edges.
Leafworms are able to leave the gardener without a crop, because they gobble up the young growth of the pear, while the buds do not appear, since they do not have time to form. In addition, the tree on which the moths settled has greatly weakened, which extremely negatively affects its frost resistance.
Preventive measures regarding the appearance of the leafworm in this case are the same as those used for growing an apple tree, namely:
- At the beginning of spring, clean the bark by removing dead areas from it. Then whitewash the base of the skeletal branches and boles with a solution of lime or chalk.
- If cracks and frost pits are found in spring, they are stripped to a healthy tissue. Then the problem area is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (1%), and then smeared with garden var.
- For the first time, the tree is treated in the early spring for prevention, while the buds are still sleeping, while the outdoor temperature should be at least four degrees. To do this, use the drug 30, it effectively fights harmful insects that overwintered both in the upper soil layer and in the bark of the plant. Further processing for preventive and therapeutic purposes is carried out only by such means as: Landing, Binom, Decis, Atom, Terradim, and you can also use the drugs described in the section on the apple tree.
After the fruits begin to actively gain weight, all chemical treatments are stopped. Further, it will be possible to use only folk remedies in the fight against pest, as well as various mechanical methods, for example:
- cleaning the weed circle from weeds and loosening the soil surface in them;
- pruning folded foliage containing caterpillars;
- regular cleaning of flying foliage and fruits;
- installation of baits; for this, banks filled with fermented sweet mixture are hung on branches;
- the use of hunting belts made of corrugated paper or burlap.
In autumn, when leaf fall is over, the garden plot needs to be cleaned of flying foliage, which is then burned.
Leaflet on a plum
The same types of leaflets can settle on a plum as on an apple or pear tree, namely: apple, bunch, oak, plum, hawthorn, bud, oriental, fruit, etc.
- Plum leafwort (codling moth). The front wings of this butterfly are brownish-gray with a purple hue, they are decorated with a blurry mirror, on which there are dots and dashes of black color. The brownish-gray hind wings at the base are painted in a paler shade.
- Fruit leaf or choppy leaf. The wingspan of a moth is from 1.7 to 2.1 cm. Its wing color is dark gray or brownish-brown with a pale blue tint, white spots are located closer to the inner edge. The upper part of the wings is 1/3 painted almost white, with brown, black or grayish-blue spots and dashes on the outer edge. Brownish-gray hind wings have a paler front edge.
In order to protect the plum from this harmful insect, you need to start a fight with it already in early spring:
- The base of the skeletal branches, as well as the plum stump, must be cleaned of dead bark fragments. Then their surface is painted using lime mortar with copper sulfate or chalk solution mixed with Karbofos.
- Preventive spraying is carried out in a timely manner before the buds open, shortly before flowering and at the end of it. To do this, use such means as: Decis, Preparation 30, Profilactin, Desant, Detox, Tod, etc.
The treatment of drains with the Drug 30 is carried out when the air warms up to 4 degrees, other means will only act if it is not colder than 10 degrees on the street. If there are few pests on the plant, then remove them with your hands or spray the plum with any folk remedy. Experts advise spraying the plum tree with chemicals only if there are a lot of leafworms. Other activities must be carried out according to the same plan that is described in the sections on pear and apple trees.
Apricot leaf wrapper
The following types of leaf moths most often settle on apricot, the description of which can be found above: oak, grape, hawthorn, apple, plum, fruit, oriental, etc.
In this case, the pest is fought in the same way as when growing a pear, plum or apple tree (see above). Remember that spraying apricot with powerful pesticides should be done only when absolutely necessary, when there are a lot of pests.
Peach is treated from pests by the same means as a pear, apple tree and other fruit trees already described. If there are few insects, then folk remedies are used for spraying, and if they turn out to be ineffective, only then it is recommended to use a strong chemical preparation.
Most often, such types of leaf mulchers are harmful to grapes as: bunch, biennial and grape.
Grape leaflet - the wingspan of this butterfly is about 2.5 cm, its mouthpart is elongated. The hind wings are brownish-gray, and the front wings are ocher, pale green or shiny like brass. On the fore wings there are oblique stripes of a dark brown color, they are more clearly visible in males, and in females they may be absent or barely distinguishable.Caterpillars of a greenish-gray color with a brown head at the very beginning destroy the vine buds, and then begin to eat young leaf plates, and also create shelters for themselves, for this bending the edges of the leaves and entangling them with a web. Only one caterpillar making a shelter can wrap several sheet plates at once. They dry out over time, turn red and turn brown. Caterpillars eat out foliage, from which only streaks remain, and also injure clusters and inflorescences.
You can start processing grapes from this pest in the last winter weeks. To do this, use a solution of Nitrafen or DNOC, with which both the plants themselves and the supports are abundantly sprayed, since a leaflet can winter there. During the growing season for the treatment of the vineyard from the pest, you can use such means as: Tsidial, Sumitsidin, Metafos, Fozalon, Ekamet or Tsimbush, lepidocide, Lepidobactocide, Bitoxibacillin, Fastak. Last time such a plant can be sprayed with chemicals no later than 30 days before harvesting. In addition to the treatments, you also need to systematically inspect the bushes and cut the folded foliage along with the caterpillars, which are then destroyed.
Leafloader on grapes and other plants.
Watch this video on YouTube
Currant bushes can be damaged by the same types of leaf moths that settle on fruit trees. Currant leaflet - the wingspan of such a butterfly is about 2.5 cm, the abdomen is brownish, and the front wings have a dark brown pattern, which is a mark of a triangular shape. Over time, it gradually turns green and becomes almost emerald. Only one female is able to lay about 150 eggs, of which caterpillars will appear soon. They not only eat foliage, but also twist it into a tube. If there are a lot of pests on the bush, then the gardener can lose almost the entire crop (up to 80 percent).
In order to save currants from this pest, it is recommended to spray it with folk remedies. To do this, you can use both decoctions and infusions made from plants with a pungent smell or pungent juice, for example: wormwood, tops of tomato or potatoes, garlic and onions. Do not forget to regularly loosen the surface of the soil under the plants, and also clean it from flying leaves, which must be destroyed. In the event that these methods prove to be ineffective, then you will have to use the chemicals that were listed in the previous sections.
Most often, raspberries are harmed by the following types of leaf moths: rose, currant, omnivorous, hawthorn, reticulate, willow, variegated, frost and bud. But raspberries do not suffer so much from such a pest, compared with currants.
- Frozen leaf - this is a small butterfly with a wingspan of about 2.2 cm. In males, the front wings are painted in grayish-red or grayish-brown, with a pair of round spots of dark color in the upper part. The color of the hind wings is gray. The front wings of the females are gray and underdeveloped, on their surface there is a dense coating consisting of long dark-colored hairs. Females do not have hind wings. The caterpillar is painted in a dirty green shade, on its sides there are paler stripes, the head is brownish-yellow.
- Mesh leaflet - the wingspan of such a butterfly is about 2.2 cm. The front wings are ocher-yellow or brownish, they are decorated with a brownish-red or rusty-brown color pattern. Pale brown hind wings are translucent.
They destroy the leaflet on raspberries in the same way as on currants (see above). Carry out thinning of bushes in a timely manner, tear off and burn folded foliage, tear out weed grass and loosen the surface of the soil around the plants.If possible, try to use folk remedies for processing the bushes, which are almost harmless to humans.
Sometimes leafworms also settle on flower crops. On the bush affected by the pest, one can find foliage rolled up like a cigar. Most often, rose leaflets, representing a small butterfly, settle on roses. In males, the wingspan is about 1.9 cm, and in females - up to 2.2 cm. Ocher-golden or dark brown front wings are decorated with narrow transversely wavy stripes and several spots that are painted in a darker shade. The length of the translucent caterpillar can reach up to 20 mm, its head is brown and shiny. Caterpillar color - various shades of green. The eggs are able to survive by lowering the temperature to minus 27 degrees, but if the winter period was not snowy, then they can die. Caterpillars gnaw the leaves, from which only skeletons remain, then they move to the upper part of the shoots and gnaw buds, after which they begin to eat flowers.
If there are few pests on the flowers, then inspect the bushes and tear off all folded foliage, which is then destroyed. In extreme cases, plants can be sprayed with a solution of Actara (1 ml of water per 1 liter). Also, for spraying, you can use products that include pyrethrin, for example: Aivengo, Alfacin, Fastak, etc.
Garden pests. Effective methods to combat aphids and leafworms.
Watch this video on YouTube