Peas: planting and care in the open ground, growing from seeds
The herbaceous plant peas (Pisum) is a representative of the legume family. It comes from South-West Asia, where it began to be cultivated in ancient times. The composition of green peas includes carotene (provitamin A), vitamin C, PP, vitamins of group B, as well as salts of manganese, phosphorus, potassium and iron. Pea also contains lysine, which is one of the most rare amino acids. To date, 3 varieties of this plant are cultivated, namely: peas, cereal, fodder and vegetable - this annual is self-pollinating and is characterized by rapid development. This culture is popular not only because it is a source of vegetable protein and contains many substances useful for the human body, but also because it is a wonderful siderate. Peas are an excellent precursor for all crops grown in the garden.
Peas have a deep root system. The height of a branching hollow stem can reach up to 250 cm, which directly depends on the variety (standard or ordinary). Complex unpaired leaf plates have petioles ending in antennae. They attach the plant to the support, which helps to keep the bush in an upright position. Bisexual self-pollinated flowers, as a rule, are painted white, but purple ones are also found. Pea flowering begins 30–55 days after sowing seeds. In an early variety bush, the first peduncle is pecked from the sinus of 6–8 leaf plates, while in late-ripening varieties from the sinuses of 12–24 leaflets. 1 time in 1 or 2 days a new peduncle grows. The fruit is a bean, which can have a different color, shape and size depending on the variety. There are 4–10 seeds inside the beans, which can be wrinkled or smooth. You should know that the peel peel and seeds inside it have the same color.
Peas, like all other plants belonging to the legume family, contribute to the enrichment of the soil with nitrogen. During the growth of bushes on their root system, the development of beneficial microorganisms is observed. This bacteria fix the nitrogen that they absorb from the air.
Growing peas (the best way to reanimate the soil)
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Planting peas in the open ground
What time to plant
Pea is a fairly demanding crop. However, if you follow all the agrotechnical rules of this culture, growing peas will be quite simple. Sowing seeds in open soil should be carried out in the last days of April (from about the twentieth day), after the snow cover has completely melted and the soil is slightly dry. Appeared seedlings grow well and do not die even with not very large freezing. If the variety is precocious, then sowing of seeds can be made from spring until the end of the first decade of July. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing the seeds of this culture in open soil several times from the last days of April to the first - July, while a distance of 1.5 weeks should be maintained between crops.
Seeds need pre-sowing preparation. To do this, they need to be heated for 5 minutes in a hot (about 40 degrees) solution of boric acid, to prepare it, mix 1 bucket of water with 2 grams of acid. As a result of this, the plant becomes more resistant to harmful insects and diseases, for example, to larvae of nodule weevil. When the seeds in the acid solution swell, they will need to be thoroughly dried. If you suddenly did not manage to wet the seeds before sowing, then they can be sown dry in the open ground, after a few hours they will swell right in the soil.
In order for the cultivation of this culture in open soil to be successful, you will need to familiarize yourself with several rules and adhere to them:
- The site should be well lit.
- Groundwater must lie deep enough, otherwise the root system of the bushes, extending into the soil 100 centimeters, can be significantly affected.
- Light peas rich in nutrients are ideally suited for peas, and the pH should be 6–7. When grown in acidic soil, the bushes will be weakened and sick.
Poor soil, and also that in which there is a large amount of readily available nitrogen, is not suitable for growing such a crop. There are gardeners who pea are sown directly in the near-stem circle of a young apple tree. The crown of a young tree is just beginning to develop, so the sun is quite enough for peas. Pea itself contributes to the enrichment of the soil with nitrogen, which is very good for the growth and development of the apple tree. If you want to resort to such a method of growing peas, then in the trunk circle of the tree you must definitely pour a layer of nutrient soil with a thickness of 10 to 12 centimeters.
Specialists advise preparing the soil for sowing such a culture in advance. To do this, in autumn, the site must be digged up; at that, 50 to 60 grams of superphosphate and 20 to 30 grams of potassium salt per 1 square meter should be added to the soil. If the soil on the site is acidic, then this can be corrected by introducing wood ash into it, while from 1 to 0.2 square meters is taken per 1 square meter of the site, the final amount of ash depends on the value of the acid index. With the onset of the next spring period, saltpeter (per 1 square meter of a plot of 10 grams) should be added to the soil. It must be remembered that this crop reacts extremely negatively to the introduction of fresh manure into the ground, however, it grows well on the land that was manufac tured when other plants were grown on it. The best predecessors of this culture are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, and also pumpkin. And sowing it is not recommended in those areas where beans, lentils, peas, beans, soy and peanuts were grown before it.
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Seeds are sown in grooves with a depth of 50 to 70 mm and a width of 15 to 20 centimeters, which must first be done on the bed. The distance between the grooves should be equal to 0.5-0.6 m. Mix compost with wood ash and pour the resulting mixture into the grooves, the resulting layer on top should be sprinkled with garden soil. After that, the depth of the grooves on the bed with heavy soil should remain about 30 mm, and with light soil - about 50 mm. During sowing, 1 to 15 grooves should leave from 15 to 17 seeds. To do this, a distance of approximately 60 mm should be maintained between the seeds. After the grooves are covered with soil, the surface of the beds must be carefully tamped, which will help maintain moisture in it. The bed needs to be protected from birds that can pull peas from the ground. To do this, they should be covered with a fishing net or a translucent film. The first seedlings will appear after 7-10 days. Between the rows in the pea bed you can sow salad or radish.
Germination of pea seeds begins already at an air temperature of 4 to 7 degrees, but this process is best carried out at 10 degrees. It should be noted that such a culture reacts extremely negatively to the heat, and if it is sown on a sultry day, it is likely that the grown plants will not have flowering.
Peas must be properly watered, after which the soil surface on the bed should be loosened, and weed grass should be removed. The first time you need to loosen the surface of the bed after half a month after the seedlings appear, and the plant will need to be spudded.After the height of the bushes is 0.2-0.25 m, in a row you should install supports on which the plants will climb up.
To make the crop more abundant, you should pinch the tops of the shoots and do this as soon as possible, after which several bushes will begin to grow at the bushes. After some time, you can also pinch them. It is recommended to pinch the bushes early in the morning on a fine day, in which case the wounds can dry well before evening. There is a possibility that harmful insects can settle on the bushes or they can be affected by the disease, so you need to be prepared to immediately begin treatment of plants.
How to water
This crop reacts extremely negatively to high air temperatures, which is why during prolonged drought the frequency and abundance of irrigation must be increased. Particular attention should be paid to watering at a time when flowers bloom on the bushes. Before flowering, the garden should be watered about 1 time in 7 days. When the peas will bloom, as well as during the formation of the fruit, the frequency of irrigation is increased yes twice every 7 days. On hot days, peas should also be watered a couple of times a week, while from 1 to 10 liters of water are taken per 1 square meter of the plot. When the bushes are watered, the soil surface must be loosened, while removing all weed grass.
Peas are recommended to be fed along with watering. Before you start watering, in 1 bucket of water you need to pour 1 tbsp. l nitroammophoski and mix everything well, this solution should be used for watering 1 square meter of planting. Replace nitroammophoska with mullein solution. Humus and compost, as well as phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be applied to the soil first before the bushes bloom, and then after the flowering is over, and the last time this is done in autumn during the processing of the site. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied to the soil in spring.
In pea bushes, the shoots are rather weak, and therefore, in the process of fruit formation, they are lodged under the weight of the pods, in this regard, they just need a garter to the support. This support can be made of metal rods or pegs, which should be installed by sticking them into the ground along a row, and a distance of 50 cm must be observed between them. A rope or wire must be pulled over them, and it should be placed horizontally. The stems of plants on which there are antennae must be directed along this support, in which case they will receive a sufficient amount of sunlight and be blown by the wind. If the support is not installed, then the bushes will fall and begin to rot from dampness and lack of light.
Growing and very quick garter of peas in their infield.
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Pests and pea diseases
Such harmful insects as a leaf moth, pea moth or garden and cabbage scoops can settle on pea bushes. Leafworms and scoops on leaf plates of a plant do egg laying. Leafworm larvae eat foliage, wrapping themselves in it, and scoop caterpillars gnaw parts of the bush located above the ground. At the same time, moth moths lay their eggs on the surface of foliage, fruits and flowers, and after 7 days larvae appear that begin to actively eat peas.
The most dangerous for peas are diseases such as powdery mildew and mosaic. Mosaic is a viral disease, today there is no effective drug for its treatment. For prevention purposes, one must not forget about the rules of crop rotation and agricultural technology of this crop, and it is also imperative to carry out pre-sowing preparation of seeds. In affected bushes, growth initially slows down and curly leaves appear, and cloves also form on their edges.After some time, necrotic spots appear on the leaf plates, while the veins lose their color.
Sphereotka (powdery mildew) is a fungal disease. A loose whitish coating forms on the surface of the aerial part of the infected plant, first it appears on the lower part of the bush, and then covers it completely. As the disease progresses, cracking and death of the fruits are observed, while the infected stems and foliage turn black and die.
If the peas are affected by the mosaic, then all diseased bushes are removed from the soil and destroyed. The site itself must be shed with a sufficiently strong solution of potassium permanganate. At this site, it is forbidden to grow anything for at least 1 year. To combat powdery mildew, various fungicidal preparations are used, for example: Topaz, Fundazol, Quadris, Topsin or Skor. If desired, you can use folk remedies in the fight against this disease, for example:
- One bucket of water is mixed with 40 grams of grated soap and the same amount of soda ash. With this solution, it will be necessary to treat the affected bushes 2 times with a break of 7 days.
- 10 l of water must be combined with 0.3 kg of foliage of sow thistle. The composition must be allowed to brew one night. Strained infusion should be treated with bushes 2 times with a break of a week.
- It is necessary to fill the bucket half with weed, after which it is filled to the top with hot water. The infusion will be ready after a few days. The filtered product is diluted with water (1:10), after which it treats the affected bushes.
It is necessary to spray the foliage in the evening, otherwise sunburns may appear in the place of the formed droplets. To get rid of caterpillars of leafworms, scoop and codling moth, it is necessary to spray plants with infusion of garlic or tomato tops. To make a tomato infusion, you need to mix 3 kg of finely chopped tops with a bucket of water, the product will be ready after 1-2 days. Strained infusion will need to spray pea foliage. 20 grams of garlic minced with a garlic squeezer are combined with 1 bucket of water. The product will be ready after 24 hours, after which it is filtered and used to treat plants. These infusions will help get rid of aphids.
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Pea harvesting and storage
After about 30 days after the plant has flowered, you can begin to harvest. The fruiting duration of this culture is from 35 to 40 days. Such a plant is a multi-collection, therefore, the assembly of its fruits is carried out every 2-3 days. Fruits located in the lower part of the bush ripen first. Within one season from 1 m2 beds can be removed about 4 kg of fruit, but this is only under favorable conditions.
Most often, gardeners cultivate shelling and sugar varieties of this plant. An important difference between peas and peas is that it does not have a parchment layer in the pods, and therefore young fruits can be eaten together with the pod if desired. The harvesting of tender pods of plants of this variety is carried out as technical maturity is achieved, starting in the second half of June. That in August, the bushes began to bloom again, and they gave a second crop, it is necessary to systematically pick all the pods from the plants to one. Harvesting is carried out very carefully so as not to injure delicate shoots.
Harvesting the fruits of shelling varieties is carried out from the last days of June until the autumn as they ripen. Since this variety is grown to produce green peas, the fruits need to be harvested while they are still smooth and have a uniform color. Pods with a drawn grid can only be used on grain.
Green peas, in fact, are immature, and experts say that the fruits are in the stage of technical maturity. It cannot be stored fresh for a long time, so it is either frozen or canned. There is another way to save the harvest.To do this, peas are poured into hot water and allowed to boil for 2 minutes. Then it is thrown into a colander and rinsed with very cold water. After that, it must be laid in an oven heated to 45 degrees, where it should stay for 10 minutes. The pulled peas must be cooled at room temperature for 1.5 hours, after which they are again put into a dryer heated to 60 degrees. If desired, peas can be dried in an oven on a baking sheet, but in this case sugar will have to be added. When the peas are ready, it will acquire a dark green color, and its surface will become wrinkled. It can be stored for a long enough time. Peas in the stage of biological maturity can be stored for several years, if everything is done correctly:
- the fruits must be fully ripened;
- before storage, the peas are thoroughly dried;
- for storage it is placed in a place where there is no access to insects.
Before storing the peas, they should be husked and dried in a well-ventilated room for 2-3 days, while scattering it on clean paper sheets. Fabric, paper or plastic bags are not suitable for storing ready-made peas, since insects penetrate them with ease. Experts recommend the use of glass jars with metal twist lids for storing peas. The fact is that covers made of kapron will not be able to reliably protect it from pests.
The peas are ripe. Different varieties of peas in mid-June
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Species and varieties of peas
There is a type of pea vegetable or sowing (Pistum sativus), it is characterized by genetic diversity. Its subspecies differ from each other by flowers, foliage, seeds and fruits. However, this classification is of interest only to specialists. For gardeners, an important division of pea varieties is the ripening: late, middle and early ripening. Also, varieties are divided for their intended purpose, their description will be given below.
Shelling (Pisum sativum convar. Sativum)
The seeds of such plants are smooth, they contain a large amount of starch, but relatively few free sugars. The best varieties of this type include the following:
- Dakota. The early ripe variety is resistant to disease and productivity. Peas are large.
- Vegetable miracle. A medium-ripening variety resistant to disease. The length of the pods is about 10–11 centimeters, the peas have excellent taste, they can be preserved and eat fresh.
- Dinga. This precocious variety was created by German breeders. The length of slightly curved pods is from 10 to 11 centimeters, they contain 9–11 peas of dark green color. They can be canned or eat fresh.
- Somerwood. This medium-late coarse-grained variety is characterized by productivity and resistance to disease. The length of the pod is from 8 to 10 centimeters, they contain 6-10 seeds.
- Jof. This medium-late variety is resistant to disease. The length of the pods is from 8 to 9 centimeters, they contain sweet peas.
- Bingo. This late variety has high yield and disease resistance. In beans, on average, there are 8 peas, which are distinguished by high taste.
Brain (Pisum sativum convar.medullary)
In the stage of biological ripeness, peas in these varieties become shriveled, but it is recommended to use them in the stage of technical ripeness. The composition of the peas includes a large amount of sugar, in connection with this they are canned and used for freezing. The varieties that are most popular are:
- Alpha. This very early ripe variety is a bush (not lodging). The duration of the growing season is about 55 days. Beans have a saber-like slightly curved shape with a sharp tip. The length of the pods is about 9 centimeters; there are 5–9 peas in them; they have high palatability.
- Phone. This amateur late-ripening variety is characterized by high productivity and very long shoots (height about 300 cm). The length of the pods is 11 centimeters, they contain from 7 to 9 sweet large peas of green color.
- Adagum. This is a mid-season variety. Ripe peas are green-yellow in color and have excellent palatability.
- Vera. This early ripe variety is characterized by high productivity. The length of the beans is 6–9 centimeters; they contain from 6 to 10 seeds.
Sugar (Pisum sativum convar.axiphium)
In these varieties, the peas are very shriveled and small. There is no parchment layer in the pods, so peas can be eaten with the pod. Popular varieties:
- Ragweed. This variety is precocious. Bushes need support.
- Zhegalova 112. This mid-season variety is characterized by high productivity. The length of slightly curved or straight pods is 10-15 centimeters, the apex is obtuse. Inside them there are from 5 to 7 tender and sweet peas.
- Sugar Oregon. The variety is medium early. The length of the beans is about 10 centimeters, they contain from 5 to 7 peas.
- The Miracle of Kelvedon. This early ripe variety is characterized by high productivity. The length of the beans is from 6 to 8 centimeters, they contain 7 or 8 smooth large seeds of a dark green color.
We have three varieties of peas. Peas in the country
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